Soldier’s Aid Societies

By Alicia Miller

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The Union Soldier Monument stands guard, looking South from the Chambersburg Diamond. The same direction that many Confederate invasions took place from. 

How many of you are familiar with Soldier’s aid societies? Franklin County had its fair share of these societies during the Civil War, contributing all that they could for the welfare of their soldiers. At the outset of the war some women were reluctant to see their men join the army because they well understood the economic and emotional consequences of such action. These wives and sweethearts urged caution and counseled patience but they were in the minority and could not drown out the drumbeats that rallied communities to war. Most women supported the war and contributed to its conduct in numerous ways. Women on both sides of the mason and Dixon line took on roles that were quite similar during the war years. Clothing the first round of volunteers was but one way that they contributed to the initial rush to arms. They were expected to take care of the household and keep it running until the men returned. They also helped the war effort by sewing blankets, making bandages, joining nurse’s organizations and working at hospitals. Women rose to such challenges not only because they had the valuable skills of homemakers but also because they like their men folk had developed organizations ranging from sewing circles to temperance groups that allowed them to rally for quick collective action.

Soldiers Aid Societies became very prevalent in the war years on both side of the war. The Semi-Weekly Dispatch printed an article on January 28, 1862 urging the women of Pennsylvania to form Ladies’ Aid Societies in every village and town, as well as church and school societies, to make sure that all women contribute necessary supplies for the soldiers who are ill in hospitals throughout the Union.

Locally there were Ladies Societies in Mercersburg, Waynesboro, Chambersburg, Greencastle, and Fayetteville and they were very active both during the Civil War and the years following it. In 1861 the ladies of Chambersburg provided picket guards protecting the town with baskets of supplies and food, and presented a flag to the 7th and 8th regiments. In 1862 the Ladies of Waynesboro crafted a flag for the 126th Pennsylvania.

An article about the appreciation for the ladies societies in the area was in the Valley Spirit on July 30, 1862 entitled Our Patriotic Ladies: We visited, on Friday last, the Associate Reformed Church, which is occupied during the week by the Ladies Aid Society. We found the room pretty well filled with ladies, engaged in the noble, patriotic and christian duty of providing clothing, and other comforts, for our sick and wounded soldiers. We might say much in praise of our ladies, but this is an age in which noble deeds bring their own reward. We will say this much, however, the ladies of Chambersburg will compare with any in existence, in their efforts to provide for the wants, and relieve the suffering of our sick and wounded in the army. They have enlisted in the good cause their nimble fingers and their noble, warm and patriotic hearts with a will. All honor then to our ladies who have thus nobly evinced their patriotism and vindicated that judgment which the poet has pronounced upon their sex, and which the world has applauded. “When pain and anguish wring the brow, A ministering angel thou.”

The following article in Valley Spirit on May 6, 1863 is a striking comparison to the previous: How little is now in reserve for the next battle? With what remorse will every man and woman regret the indifferences of the present hour, when garments and various comforts are suddenly required? Heretofore hundreds of boxes were ready for shipment–now everything is lacking. The great rise in the price of material is one cause of this falling off; and this should render more imperative the duty of concentrating and sending through the most efficient channel all the stores which our loyal women furnish. Another cause of this falling off is in the weariness consequent upon this protracted war. But in the language of the President of the Commission, “As long as the men fight the women must knit and sew,” and the friends at home furnish means to alleviate the sorrows and wants of the camps and hospitals. Whatever you may have hitherto been doing, from this time consider how you can best and most surely reach the suffering soldier, where he is most exposed and most forgotten. Do not delay; do not abandon your efforts after a short time. You must enlist in the work for the war. It is the woman’s part in the patriotic struggle we are in.

In October 28, 1863, according to the Franklin Repository the Ladies Aid Society of Chambersburg reported some of their contributions to their soldiers in need: We forwarded in May and June 7 boxes containing the following goods (including a package from the ladies of Fayetteville, consisting of 4 shirts, 7 pair of drawers, 1 pair of pillow cases and 2 quilts,) 90 pillow cases, 62 pair drawers, 75 shirts, 14 bed sacks, 76 sheets, 127 towels, 68 handkerchiefs, 7 pair of stockings, 6 fans, 20 comforts, 15 quilts, 4 blankets, 22 wrappers, 4 pair of slippers and 14 pillows; also from friends in town and country a large quantity of canned and preserved fruit, bologna sausage, 14 doz. eggs, corn starch, jellies, butter.

In the latter years of the war many local ladies aid societies held held fairs benefitting Christian commission’s work for sick/diabled soldiers and by 1864, they were receiving letters from soldiers and officers asking them for items they needed and requesting the women to help supply them directly, certainly a sign of the need for such an organization and of the Aid Society’s success. In the years following the war the ladies aid societies of the area still continued to work tirelessly to improve the welfare of the soldiers, even with intentions of erecting a monument to Franklin County’s soldiers.

Initiated by the ladies aid society and secured through gifts of Franklin County citizens, the Memorial Fountain and Statue in downtown Chambersburg honors the town’s role in the Civil War. It was dedicated on July 17, 1878 to honor the men who fought in the Civil War and has a faithful Union soldier guarding the southern gate at the fountain.


Jacob Hoke Writes About the Great Night Battle

Jacob Hoke. The Great Invasion of 1863; or General Lee in Pennsylvania, W. J. Shuey Publications Dayton OH, 1887. Pg. 451-453

On this same day (Saturday, 4th,) Kilpatrick’s cavalry division, reinforced by Huey’s brigade, of Gregg’s division, moved from Emmittsburg up to Monterey Pass, with the purpose of striking the enemy’s line. The following thrilling and graphic account of the terrific night attack by that bold and intrepid leader, has been furnished me by Dr. H. G. Chritzman, who was connected with Huey’s brigade. So far as I am aware no account of that affair has ever before been published. Dr. Chritzman, says:

“July 4th, we moved to Emmittsburg and reported to Kilpatrick; moved same evening to intercept Swell’s wagon-train which was reported to be near Monterey Springs. The brigade moved rapidly up the mountain road, striking Ewell’s wagon-train about three o’clock in the morning of July 5th, in the midst of a furious thunder storm, whilst on its retreat from Gettysburg.

‘At once there rose so wild a yell

Within that dark and narrow dell,

As if all the fiends from heaven that fell,

Had pealed the banner cry of hell.’

This, combined with the Plutonic darkness made it one of the nights long to be remembered. When we came up with the wagon – train, Federal and Confederate cavalry, wagons, ambulances, drivers and mules became a confused mass of pursued and pursuing demons whose shouts and carbine shots, mingled with the lightning’s red glare and the thunder’s crash, made it appear as if we were in the infernal regions. Especially so as the cries of the wounded often rose high above the din of the conflicting forces.

“Frequently a driver would be shot or leave his mule team, when the unrestrained animals would rush wildly down the narrow road, and in many instances the wagons with the mules attached would be found at daylight at the bottom of some deep ravine crushed to pieces, with the mules dead or dying. It was a fearful ride suiting well the fearless intrepidity of our daring commander. A Confederate brigade, then a long train of wagons and ambulances, then our brigade in the center, with Ewell’s corps in our rear, going down that narrow mountain road upon the principle of the devil take the hindmost,—you have Kilpatrick’s dash across Monterey Pass.

Peace Democrats Who Opposed the Civil War

copperheadpinFor years, I have heard stories about a group of people who lived along the Mason Dixon Line that were opposed to the Civil War. This topic is a forgotten aspect that played a major role in politics in several Maryland and Pennsylvania towns in this region. Maryland is known as a border state and it is common knowledge that the state was split in their loyalties. However, did you know that Pennsylvania was just the same? There were several men who took up arms for the Confederacy from Pennsylvania. Some sources state that almost 2,000 men fought in the Confederate army. As the Civil War progressed, many Pennsylvania Democrats were split, and as a result their party became split as well. Some men supported the war while others did not, those that did not became known as a Copperhead.

In 1862, once it became known that the Civil War would give way to freedom for African Americans, a race war was inevitable. On September 22, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln announced a formal emancipation of all slaves within the Confederate States that did not return to Union control by January 1, 1863. Many white citizens as well as immigrants in Maryland and Pennsylvania feared that their employer would replace them with the freed African Americans, paying them at a lower pay rate. The war was unpopular, and as a result many people rose up against the drafts. Most citizens just wanted peace with the southern states. They felt that a war wasn’t worth the lives that would be expended and they did not want new laws being enforced to pay for the war debt. By the Spring of 1863, many Franklin County, Pennsylvania papers gave birth to the Anti-war men known as the Copperheads.

Most Civil War buffs have heard the term “Copperhead,” but do they really understand who these men were? Looking up the definition of a Copperhead during the time of the American Civil War, the term was dubbed as a vocal group of Democrats in the Northern United States who opposed the Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederate States of America. Copperheads were sometimes identified by a copper cent with the Goddess of Liberty cut out and displayed as a badge upon their coat lapel.

Most of the newspaper accounts cited in this article are from Franklin County, Pennsylvania, which borders Northern Maryland cities such as Hagerstown, and within 15 miles of Emmitsburg. Even though these sources are directly related to Pennsylvania, the same sentiments were expressed in the bordering Maryland towns.

The term Copperhead was first reported in Waynesboro in the Waynesboro Village Record on March 13, 1863. The Waynesboro Village Record ran an article comparing the 1863 Copperhead to that of the 1814 Copperhead. “Comparing them to the Federalists who convened the infamous Hartford Convention, the article declares that copperheadism of today is the offshoot of copperheadism of 1812-14.” But, it adds, “Just as the Federalists were dealt a stunning blow as a consequence of their actions following the U. S. victory over the British, a similar result will befall the latest generation, which will be visited with the scorn and damnation of not only all American freemen, but by the lovers of freedom throughout the world as well.”

Another story from March 13th was reported about the distribution of a pamphlet that was reported as a “Treasonable Document.” This article read: “It is reported that several local, prominent copperheads are involved in a scheme to distribute pamphlets containing a speech recently delivered by “the Ohio traitor, Vallandigam.” Despite the fact that Vallandigam was threatened with violence in his own state for his pro-southern views, the piece sardonically notes, for some reason, parties in Franklin County applaud the villain and seek to give him notoriety by disseminating his treasonable documents among the people.”

In March of 1863, the Copperheads were victorious during the township elections. The Valley Spirit on March 25th, 1863 reported that “During the Spring elections Franklin county is now largely Democratic beyond the peradventure of a doubt. It is an old saying, that the first thunder of the season awakes the snakes, and it must have been the late storm that stirred out the “copperheads” on Friday last. For out they came, though the day was scarcely warm enough for them, and like the Serpent that Aaron cast down before Pharaoh, they very quietly went to work and devoured all the little poisonous snakes that were hissing out their venom around them. Stand firm, Democrats, be moderate, patient, long-suffering, stick together, and the story of Aaron’s big snake won’t be a circumstance to the way the “blacksnakes” and “blowers” will disappear before next fall.”

In another article entitled “Union or Loyal League” excerpts from the article reveal “They’ll keep the damned copperheads in their places, so this is the object of the organization, is it? They alone are to decide who are “copperheads,” and “copperheads” are to be “kept in their places” that is, in other words, to be prevented from expressing their opinions by voice or through the ballot box. Well, let the issue come; the sooner it is met the better. Such is the movement now being inaugurated in Pennsylvania.”

On March 27th, 1863, the Copperheads made the Waynesboro Village Record. It was reported that on two occasions rebel sympathizers met on the streets after dark and celebrated to honor Jefferson Davis, Stonewall Jackson, and the Southern Cause, however the Copperheads were growing bolder. Another article in the paper stated that the Copperheads did not speak out against the use of African Americans in the Confederate army where blacks and whites would fight/work side by side even though they were opposed to African American men enlisting in segregated regiments of the Union army.

On April 1st, 1863, the Valley Spirit reported that the Democratic majority outweighed the Republicans in victories across the Commonwealth. However, when it came to the Democratic Copperhead and the radical Republication known as a Blacksnake, it was stated that a “copperhead is fearless, independent, and brave, while black snakes are cowardly, hissing, and thieving.”

Soon politics in the local papers began a political war with words. On April 3rd, 1863, the Waynesboro Village Record reported: “The focus of the piece is on the newspaper’s claim to political impartiality, which, they admit, has been called into question lately by local copperheads. It is a high crime in their estimation for a paper neutral in politics to denounce traitors of the Vallandigham stripe North, and thus advocate the cause of the Union and true democracy. They call this partiality, abuse of the democratic party, etc. It will be impossible for us to contend with present prices successfully, with the lying “copperheads” resorting to every means in their power.”

As the war with words stormed throughout the papers, the Waynesboro Village Record on April 14, 1863 reported that “The editors denounce the mounting criticism of Union Leagues made by copperhead newspapers, which contend that the organization is extremely partisan. Copperhead papers every where (says the Hanover Spectator) are making bitter and malignant attacks upon the Union Leagues and charge among other things that they are secret oath bound associations intended to suppress public sentiment by the sword and bayonet.”

On April 17th, 1863, the Waynesboro Village Record ran an article: “A Copperhead Corns Pinched.” It was a rebuttal to an article that appeared in the Chambersburg Valley Spirit, assailing one of the Record’s correspondents. The controversy was sparked by the views that disloyal northerners should be “strung up to the telegraph poles along the railroad.”

As the Copperheads’ reputation grew, so did the editorials in the papers. During the Union Loyal League Meeting held in May it was reported by the Waynesboro Village Record that “the organizational meeting for local chapter of the Union League went off smoothly with the exception of the expected interruptions of several copperheads who, like “slimy reptiles,” milled about the hall “bellowing” throughout the evening. The man who asserts that nobody is disloyal in the loyal states must be one of two things, a fool or full-fledged traitor. Who tore down under cover of darkness, in Waynesboro, months ago, the American flag? Were they loyal hands?”

Franklin County Copperheads would soon be at unease as their leader was arrested. Ohio Representative Clement Laird Vallandigham was the Copperhead faction of anti-war Democrats and was a vigorous supporter of constitutional states’ rights. He did not believe in supporting a war to end slavery, which he felt would lead to the enfranchisement of the African American people. He was arrested by the Union Provost because he had violated an army order against the public expression of sympathy for the Confederate States. He was ordered to be confined for the duration of the Civil War. However, on the order of President Lincoln, Vallandigham “the Copperhead traitor” was instead sent to the enemy lines.”

On May 22nd, it was reported “The arrest of Vallandigham has sparked considerable unrest among copperheads, even in Waynesboro. Some of his supporters proposed having a rally in town to voice their displeasure with the arrest, but opted not to because it was deemed inexpedient at this time.” A week later the Waynesboro Village Record on May 29, 1863, reported “The Original Copperhead, Utilizing an extract from an address given by Benedict Arnold to validate its claim, the piece casts copperheads as the heirs to his legacy of shame.”

Upon returning to Pennsylvania, Company B of the 126th Pennsylvania had their flag inscribed “Copperheads Beware.” Unknown to the soldiers at the time, the flag was soon adopted by the Fulton Union League.

While, disarray was all surrounding the arrest of Vallandigham, the Waynesboro Village Record on June 05, 1863, reported that another demonstration was made by the Copperheads at the Waynesboro Square voicing their support to Jefferson Davis and Vallandigham “who, it appears, has become their “pet.”

On June 12th, 1863, just days before the Confederate invasion of Pennsylvania, the Waynesboro Village Record reported that close to 2,000 clergymen in France and England have united to condemn the “Slave Aristocracy.” The religious leaders assert that the Confederacy, based as it is on slavery, “is at war with Christianity.” In fact, proclaims the piece, outside of the South, with the exception of northern copperheads, this sentiment “is the view of the Christian world.”

Another article in the same edition read “it is quite easy to determine the motives underlying copperheads’ support for the Confederacy: naked self-interest. Proponents of the southern cause in New York advocate “peace at any cost” because they “lost the Southern trade” as a consequence of the war. Similarly, supporters of the rebel cause in Illinois are spurred primarily by the drop in the price of corn occasioned by the onset of the conflict.” These malcontents, the article declares, would rather “break up the nation” than sacrifice their own personal economic interests.

With the introduction of new publications in Philadelphia, the Copperheads were given the opportunity to reach a broader audience with their political statement. However, several anti-Copperhead supporters stated that the new publications “Expresses sentiments so treasonable, that a man would have to be a bold, bonified traitor to endorse such opinions.” In New York, an elderly gentleman was heckled and dragged from the stage at a copperhead meeting because he asserted that South Carolina started the war.

Soon the Copperheads would be tested in Waynesboro and the surrounding areas as Confederate soldiers would embark upon their town. Many Copperheads had long anticipated this moment, thinking that their support of the Confederate cause would be warmly received by the soldiers. This turned out to be the exact opposite; in fact many Copperheads were shunned by the Confederate soldiers. Many area newspapers headlined the “Rebels Snub the Copperheads”. Pennsylvania residents were treated poorly by the Confederate soldiers such as one case where a Confederate soldier threatened harm to a woman if she did not cut down a Liberty pole. This was according to reporters “one of the most ‘malignant copperheads’ in town.”

As Confederate Albert Jenkins and his cavalry brigade made their way northward into Pennsylvania, several Copperheads were surprised to see that the Confederate general refused to shake their hands. In one case Jenkins was reported as saying “Lincoln ought to have hung you and the rest of the Copperheads long ago. We would not tolerate such men in the Southern Confederacy. We respect those who are against us in the North much more than the Copperheads.” Many Confederate soldiers voiced their opinions to the Copperheads telling them that if they truly supported the South, they should pick up a musket and join the fight. This stunned the Copperheads to their core.

Soon, in July, violence began in New York by the Copperheads when they resisted the draft. The Copperheads were blamed for hanging men from lamp posts as well as trying to start another riot. Many papers criticized the inconstancy of the Copperheads. “To opponents of black enlistment, Copperheads declare a “white man’s war.” To government calls for white enlistments, Copperheads cry “black man’s war.” To opponents of black enlistment, Copperheads charge racial inequality.”

In Kentucky, it was reported that “contempt for the Copperheads who have little respect for the Union soldiers who fight to preserve the Union. The author sees little difference between the rebels and the Copperheads.” In Tennessee, the Knoxville Register states that “consideration of those Germans here and elsewhere, who have been led, against their better judgment and the tradition of their Faderland, by copperhead demagogues, to sympathize with the rebels, or at least to place themselves in an attitude of opposition to the administration of the United States Government. We think that with this knowledge of what the rebels think of the Germans and how they purpose to treat them, any German who still blindly follows their Copperhead leaders, is utterly destitute of self-respect and of brotherly feeling for the gallant Germans in our army”

In the Franklin Repository published on August 5, 1863 “The Fulton Democrat, edited by the member of the Democratic State Committee for this district, seems exceedingly ambitious to get up a small draft riot in Fulton County. In a late issue an editorial review of the conscription bill thus apologizes for the copperhead thieves and murderers of New York.”

As the Copperheads’ reputation grows they will soon be attacked by their words, actions and political stand regarding several key issues of the day. Many articles in the local Franklin County papers state that African Americans are superior to the Copperheads. Other headlines state that the Copperheads were whispering into the ears of people stating the Government is neglecting the people. Eventually other Democrats began leaving the party.

The Union ticket even tried to influence women. On September 30th, 1863, the Franklin Repository stated “To the young women we would say, that if after trying all their persuasive eloquence on their suitors they prove to be incorrigible Copperheads, give them the mitten at once. Don’t waste a smile on a fellow who refuses either by bullet or ballot to help put down the rebellion. Make these bucks face the Union music square, or go under!”

President Lincoln issued a proclamation that was published in the New York Tribune, “How good a work the President has done for the army and the nation, by his timely interposition between the Copperheads and their cherished object, of defeating the draft and so preventing the reinforcement of the army, when he issued his recent proclamation suspending the privileges of the writ of habeas corpus in certain cases. The schemes of the conspirators of copperheadism have been brought to naught.”

In Waynesboro, Major B. M. Morrow of the 1st Battalion, 22nd Cavalry responded to accusations that he and his soldiers disrupted a Union meeting previously reported in the Franklin Repository. Major Morrow stated “As for the term of Copperhead applied to me. I care not, as my attachment to the army for more than two years will give the lie to that.”

While the papers kept fueling the intense political fire regarding Copperheads, this one article is, at the very least, comical. On October 7, 1863, the Franklin Repository wrote “John M. Cooper, formerly of the Spirit, is a Copperhead working as a clerk in Harrisburg and assessing mortgages for the county.” The Repository jokes that in order for the county to avoid paying its taxes, Cooper should recommend inviting the rebels to come and visit in order to destroy their property, thus eliminating the need to pay taxes.

In late October it was reported that the rebel invasion brought an increased influence to Copperheads who encouraged local citizens to vote against Governor Curtin because the state government was slow in its compensation to the invaded areas. The Copperheads wanted Democrat George Woodward to gain control of Pennsylvania. By the elections of 1863, it was reported that the Copperheads unsuccessfully attempted to prevent the representatives from several states from voting. To make matters worse, all the Pennsylvania Copperheads voted against offering any encouragement for the enlistment of African Americans. During this period many Pennsylvania news editors wanted a “conscription bill that will “gobble up” a due share of the whining, cowardly, copperheads.” Even the papers stated that many Union soldiers who deserted from the ranks of the army were aided by the Copperheads.

As the Spring of 1864 was winding down, the papers continued to wage war against the Copperheads and “their decisive discomfiture in November” by running several columns in the papers for the Lincoln and Johnson ticket. With this new ad campaign, “A sardonic celebration of the new “marriage” between Copperheads and radicals, joined together by their mutual hatred of Lincoln.” The Copperheads would loose that cause when Lincoln was reelected as the President of the United States.

Until the close of the war and even during reconstruction, the Copperheads were still viewed as traitors to the Union, and as a result the Republicans held the public’s support up to the Great Depression. The term Copperhead would soon fade away as a footnote in history as the nation was coming together as one.

Life On The Home Front, 1865

Franklin Repository: January 4, 1865

Unpunished Homicides

Summary: Documents the “inevitable tendency of war” to “lessen sanctity for human life” on the homefront as well as on the battle field. According to the article, before the war citizens responsibly meted out justice in response to criminal acts, but the war brought “fearful change” in the form of “wide-spread disregard of the law.” Specifically, the authors review several murders: the murder of Unger by a soldier; the murder of Coble, shot on election night; a soldier killed on the premises of Gabby; the murder of Sweitzer; and the murder of Redmon by Lieut. Underhill, for absence without leave.

Full Text of Article:

The inevitable tendency of war is to lessen sanctity for human life, and especially is it so in civil war waged with wanton ferocity on the part of the insurgents. Not alone in the terrible sacrifices of the sanguinary field is the sad cost of war to be estimated. Its tendency is ever to demoralization; to lawlessness; to disregard of treasure; to waste of life, and to weaken the great moral sentiments on which the whole fabric of social order is reared. Against this appalling evil this journal has consistently and earnestly raised its voice. It has braved the heated prejudices of its party in denouncing violence because of real or imaginary disloyalty in our midst, and it has, with steadfast, unfaltering faith in the supremacy of law, appealed to every citizen to look above the passions of the day to the common welfare of a free people.

Five years ago a murder in our midst excited the liveliest concern on the part of our entire population. However humble the victim or the criminal, the public mind was startled, and followed the often tedious course of justice with unabated interest until the majesty of the law was fully vindicated. Our court room would be crowded to overflowing when a citizen was charged with the grave crime of taking the life of one of his fellows, and had justice failed to vindicate its high prerogatives, there would have been a sad unrest deeply seated among the people, and the homicide would have escaped the penalty of the law only to suffer a popular condemnation scarcely less terrible than death. Every citizen felt that he had his full share of responsibility in maintaining the majesty of the laws, and these sacred obligations were taught on every hand as the first civil duty of the citizen.

Let us now glance for a moment at the fearful change a few years of war has wrought in our midst, and there are few dispassionate men who will not be startled at the wide-spread disregard of law that has insensibly grown up amongst us. On the second Tuesday of October, 1863, three men met death by violence in this county. An altercation in Waynesboro’ resulted in the instant death of Mr. Unger at the hands of a soldier; Mr. Coble, one of the judges of election of Hamilton was shot dead the same evening when passing his home in a peaceable manner by a soldier who fired upon one of his companions; and a soldier of the same squad was shot by accident the same night and mortally wounded. Thus the election day of 1863 gave us three violent deaths in Franklin county–two of whom were respected citizens and the other an unoffending soldier. During the last summer a soldier was found on the premises of Mr. Gabby brutally murdered, and it is not doubted that it was a most deliberate and atrocious murder to facilitate a robbery. But a short time ago Mr. Sweitzer, one of our most worthy citizens, was cruelly murdered near his own door; and it is only a few weeks since Lieut. Underhill, in command of this post, deliberately shot down and killed one of his own men and fired at others because they tried to get off to their quarters without arrest. In all these cases there was no punishment. Six murders, or what in times of peace and order would be so held, have been committed in our county within fifteen months, and the law has in no instance vindicated its power by the punishment of the criminals. The man who killed Mr. Unger, of Waynesboro, was acquitted on technical grounds; the killing of Mr. Coble, of Hamilton, and the soldier the same night, were held to be accidental, and the author or authors were unknown; the supposed murderer of the unknown soldier found on Mr. Gabby’s farm was discharged because the witnesses on the part of the prosecution could not be procured; the person who killed Mr. Sweitzer could not be identified, although we believe that an earnest effort was made to do so, and a military court of inquiry acquitted Lieut. Underhill of the murder of Mr. Redmon, and he has since been promoted by Gov. Seymour to a Captaincy and discharged from arrest.

We submit that the time has come for every citizen, and also every soldier, to set his face like flint against unpunished crime. Unless this current of murder is arrested by the people arousing to the necessity of a rigid enforcement of the laws, there will be no safety to person or property in our midst. If it be lawful for a soldier to shoot when, where and at whom a real or imaginary offence seems in his judgment to warrant, then must the innocent fall and the perpetrators go unwhipped of justice, until officers and soldiers weary of such bloody amusement. As thing now stand, there is every invitation that passive submission can give to officers and soldiers to resent every wrong by the employment of their deadly weapons, and if they kill, either the innocent or those they regard as guilty, there is no redress. Military tribunals take possession of the criminals in such cases, and it would seem that if any sort of a plausible pretext can be found for acquittal, there is no punishment.

The case of Lieut. Underhill we regarded as one most clearly demanding the severest punishment; and being himself an officer of education, of respectable rank and holding an important trust as post commander, his conviction and just sentence would have been most salutary in its influence upon the great public interests whose peril we so seriously deplore. He entered a house where some of his men were without proper leave. They, desiring to get to their quarters and avoid arrest, fled when he entered, and because they refused to stop when he ordered them to do so, he fired four times after them, two balls entering Mr. Redmon, who staggered back into his house and died with a sad message to his wife upon his lips, in presence of the author of the fatal deed. Can it be pretended that such reckless destruction of life is justifiable or even excusable by the laws of war? If so, then had any citizen received Lieut. Underhill’s balls, fired at random in the dark and in a densely populated part of the town, there could have been no punishment. If the act was lawful, its consequences could not impose a penalty. But with due deference to the members of the court of inquiry–not one of whose names have we ever heard–we insist that the act was a gross infraction of the regulations, an irreparable wrong to society and a flagrant violation of moral and civil right. He went in search of the absented men of his command without a patrol, as was his duty, and he did not seek, nor was he prepared, to arrest them and return them under guard. On the contrary he broke in upon them without his side-arms–the usual mark of office to command their obedience, and when they attempted to return to their camp and escape the penalty of arrest, he had no more right to fire upon them than he had to shoot at any citizen on the streets. They were not seeking to desert, nor to get away from duty; but on the contrary were, as was clearly proven on the inquiry, seeking to get to their quarters, where he could have arrested and punished them for absence without leave at his leisure; and his firing upon them and the killing of Mr. Redmon was simply a wanton, deliberate murder. There was no provocation other than that they took an irregular way to return to their quarters, just as he took an irregular way to make them do so, and he soothed the wounded pride of a little unbalanced authority in the blood of a soldier–a husband and a father. General Scott, when Commander-in-chief of the army, did not admit that even in a case of mutiny, or conduct tending to this great crime, it was justifiable for an officer to shoot down the leader or leaders, until the order for arrest has been made and failed; but a Lieutenant assumes to shoot his men down as if they were oxen because they attempt to return to their duty in an irregular way regardless of an irregular order, and Gov. Seymour signalizes his appreciation of his gallantry by promoting him to a captaincy.

We believe that Capt. Underhill has merits as a soldier, but we cannot concede that human life shall be made the mere toy of the passions and pride of petty officials; and that lawlessness shall become rife in our midst by reason of the presence of those whose especial duty it is to enforce the laws. The time has come for thorough reform in this matter, and we appeal to those holding military authority to make common cause with every good citizen to stay the appalling tide of murder that has recently stained the annals of justice in our county.


Summary: Reports the re-established operation of the gas company. The Repository urges the town fathers to repair the street lamps in the burned part of Chambersburg.


Summary: Describes the Waynesboro Ladies Fair, for the benefit of the Christian Commission, which took place last week and earned more than expected.

Franklin Repository: January 11, 1865

Casualties In The 17th Cavalry

Summary: The Record relates the casualties for the 17th Cavalry described in a letter from Capt. Kurtz to his family in Waynesboro. David Royer and son, Daniel Royer, of the Waynesboro vicinity, were shot and killed. Arnold Rodgers was wounded. The Confederates took Privates Benjamin Straley, Tracey, Unger, and Stoner as prisoners.


Summary: Announces the sermon of Rev. Dr. Conrad in the LutheranChurch for soldiers stationed in the vicinity.


Summary: Reports the appointments made by the CountyCommissioners: George Foreman as Clerk, John Stewart as Attorney, Dr. J. C. Richards as Prison Physician, and H. E. Wertz as Mercantile Appraiser.

[No Title]

Summary: Mourns the loss of Lieut. S. J. Dick, of the 18th U. S. Infantry. S. J. Dick, son of Joseph Dick, formerly of Mercersburg, was found murdered in the public square of Nashville, Tennessee, on December 29.

A Good Shot

Summary: Congratulates the skill of Hezekiah Keefer of HamiltonTownship in killing four wild turkeys at one shot at a distance of sixty yards.

Mr. S. S. Garver

Summary: Reports that S. S. Garver, son of Joseph Garver, formerly of FranklinCounty, died in Kansas City. He served some time in the army and was a merchant at the time of his death.


Summary: Announces the promotion of H. G. Bonebrake, of Waynesboro, as Second Lieutenant of Co. G, 17th Pa. Cavalry.

Franklin Repository: February 15, 1865

Dr. I. N. Snively

Summary: Announces the relocation of Dr. I. N. Snively, formerly associated with Dr. J. C. Richards, to Waynesboro.

Franklin Repository: May 24, 1865

Local Items–Waynesboro Items

Summary: George Frick, proprietor of the Waynesboro Foundry and Machine Shop, suffered a serious accident last Saturday in which he lost the thumb on his right hand and severely damaged several fingers. Frick was attended to by Drs. Frantz and Snively and is “doing well although suffering great pain.”

Resources: Valley of the Shadow, Newspaper Archives

Life On The Home Front, 1864

Valley Spirit: February 10, 1864

Fast Work

Summary: Messrs. Franciscus and Oyer threshed 160 bushels of wheat in three-and-a-quarter hours on the farm of David Zullinger in LetterkennyTownship, using a Waynesboro Separator. This is a considerable improvement on the old mode of beating out grain with a flail.

Franklin Repository: March 2, 1864

Capt. John E. Walker

Summary: “Capt. John E. Walker, of Co. A 77th volunteers, is at his home in Waynesboro’, where he has opened a recruiting office. He is a brave and competent officer, as has been shown on various battle-fields, and recruits could join no more creditable organization.”

Franklin Repository: March 16, 1864

Serious Accident

Summary: Benjamin F. Barr, sixteen year-old son of Abraham Barr of the Waynesboro area, is in critical condition after being accidentally shot in the face by a younger brother. Drs. Brotherton and Frantz “entertain hopes of his recovery”


Summary: Jacob, son of Jacob Wise, near Orrstown, got his arm caught in the pulley of a threshing machine on March 7th, “fracturing it in a most distressing manner.” Drs. Kell, Hayes, and Kennedy were called, and decided the arm had to be amputated.

Franklin Repository: April 6, 1864

Information Wanted

Summary: Advertises that Ann E. Grayson, seeks the information on her husband, John L. Grayson. They escaped from the South at different times. She stays in Waynesboro.

Small Pox

Summary: The editors remind readers of the appearance of small pox in FranklinCounty and recommend the vaccination of children.

Valley Spirit: May 4, 1864


Summary: Encourages women of FranklinCounty to get involved in the work of the Christian Commission.

Full Text of Article:

At a meeting of the ladies of Chambersburg, interested in the Christian Commission (which has for its object the supply of materials for the sick and wounded of our army, more especially after a battle) it was unanimously agreed to hold a fair on the 13th of June, for the purpose of raising funds towards the benevolent association above mentioned. It is thought advisable to interest the people of Franklin county in this laudable enterprise, so that a united effort on the part of the citizens of one of the richest and most populous counties in the State may be successful and worthy of the cause and the people. In furtherance of this object, it is suggested, that the prominent ladies of the large towns of Waynesboro, Greencastle, Mercersburg, London, Orrstown and Fannettsburg, with all the villages of the county, should confer among themselves and act with our citizens in this undertaking. Each of these places could be separately represented at the fair and have their own table, superintended by a committee from amongst themselves. Mrs. General Couch is President of the ladies association in this place, Mrs. William McLellan Vice President and Miss. Mary McCullough Secretary from whom any information desired, can be had by addressing her. Weare [sic] all interested in this movement, hundreds of our young men, our fathers, husbands and brothers are girding on their swords for the battle, before whose significance the past withers into forgetfulness, no human sagacity can tell when or where the blow may be struck, but we all know that in that fatal field many a womanly form in our midst, will be widowed and broken hearted, the refluent tide of war may bring the thunder of artillery in our very midst, and our fields may be crimsoned with the blood of our brothers. It is the part of wisdom to prepare now to alleviate the pain and suffering of the wounded. In this Gospel of Charity the ministry is given unto woman, for many reasons, she may not go in the field, but what more cheering thought could sooth[e] the brow of pain, than to know that a mother, wife or sister’s hand had sent these comforts to the stricken soldier. But I merely meant to suggest the plan of united action, all over our county, to the ladies, knowing full well, that the fair hands, that roused them into the field, will also alleviate their sufferings. Delta.

Franklin Repository: May 11, 1864


Summary: “We learn from the Waynesboro Record that Mr. Jeremiah Cooper, Fife Major of the 77th Reg. P. V., arrived in that place last week. He was taken prisoner at the battle of Chickamauga, and up to quite recently was in Richmond prison. His sufferings at the hands of the Richmond fiends were great no doubt. Our citizens may well extend the hand of welcome to this veteran soldier of the gallant old 77th. He is on his parole not having yet been exchanged.”

Prof. R. A. McClure

Summary: “Prof. R. A. McClure has given two musical concerts in Waynesboro with great success.”

The Ladies’ Fair

Summary: An article about the ladies of Chambersburg who have recently organized in order to hold a fair to benefit the Christian Commission, exhorting the “prominent ladies” in other towns and villages in the county to get involved.

Franklin Repository: May 25, 1864

Narrow Escape

Summary: W. H. Brotherton, of Waynesboro, narrowly escaped drowning when he missed the right fording on Pipe Creek, swollen from recent rains. He was able to cut his horse free from the buggy and ride to shore, but he lost the buggy and his “carpet sack, clothing, papers, etc.”

[No Title]

Summary: “It is requested that persons having taken sewing for the Ladies Fair, for the benefit of the Christian Commission will return the same by Tuesday, May 31st, so that the committee may prepare it for sale at the Fair. This notice refers to such article[s] made from muslin, linen and flanel.”

A Fair

Summary: “The ladies of Waynesboro’ and vicinity” have decided to hold a Fair in that town for the benefit of the Christian Commission.

The Draft Ordered

Summary: “Capt. Eyster has received orders to proceed to draft for the deficiencies under the late calls without delay, and he will be ready to commence on Monday next. He will not reach Franklin county for two weeks. The men drafted will be reported in our columns.”

Payment of the Militia

Summary: “Maj. Wm. S. Stryker, Paymaster, will be in Chambersburg on Friday next to pay the militia companies of 1862 remaining unpaid. The members of the companies will facilitate the matter by calling on the Captains before that day and signing the rolls.”

Franklin Repository: June 1, 1864

In Waynesboro’ borough, 138 men have enrolled, leaving a deficiency of 15, so 23 names were drawn for the draft: Benjamin Lampkins, Jeremiah Cooper, Thomas Butler (col’d), James Bonner, W. G. Smith, W. H. French, Henry Bell, John Philips, David S. Bonebrake, John Kline, William Lokas, Patterson Overfield, Walter E. Krebs, Jeremiah Miller, Jeremiah Zimmerman, H. S. Bonebrake, Charles T. Rohyual, W. B. Hunter, Augustus Fisher, George Honstine, Samuel Kuhns, Josiah Bakener, Jacob H. Forney. The schedule for when and where the Board will sit and make the draft, hear claims for exemption and receive commutation money and substitutes, is given after the list of men drafted.

Broke Jail

Summary: Mac Hamilton, a “colored” man awaiting trial for murder, and five men arrested as deserters–John Helurg of Co. M, 22nd Pennsylvania Cavalry, William Van Dyke, Jacob Van Dyke, and Jacob H. Coons, all of Co. B, 5th New York Artillery, and William Sissom of Co. G, 120th New York Vols.–escaped from the Chambersburg jail last Wednesday. They asked for a pail of water, and struck the girl who delivered it when she opened the door, rushing past her and making their escape. Hamilton returned to the jail voluntarily on Saturday (a move the author of the article cannot fathom, because Hamilton will die if he is found guilty as charged). Hamilton reported that he had left the deserters in Amberson’s Valley, and citizens are urged to capture them and claim the $30.00 reward offered for the arrest of any deserter.

Full Text of Article:

On Wednesday night of last week, six prisoners effected their escape from the Jail in this place. Their names are–Mac. Hamilton, (colored) awaiting trial for murder, and John Helurg, Co. M, 22d Penna. Cavalry; Wm. Van Dyke, Jacob Van Dyke, and Jacob H. Coons, of Co. B, 5th New York Artillery, and William Sissom Co. G, 120th New York Vols.,–all arrested by the Provost Marshal as deserters. They had been locked inside of the Jail building in the evening, and when they supposed the Sheriff to be out, they asked for a bucket of water. When the servant girl opened the door to hand in the water, they struck the girl on the arm with a stick, and rushed out of the Jail and made their escape. On Saturday morning last the negro returned to the Jail voluntarily and gave himself up. What his motive was for doing so, can scarcely be conjectured, as he is imprisoned on a charge that will demand his life if he is found guilty. He reports that he left the deserters in Amberson’s Valley. Any citizen is entitled to a reward of $30 for the arrest of a deserter, and we doubt not that the citizens of the Valley can, with a little strategy, gather most of these deserters up. We learn that Capt. Eyster has placed a special guard about the Jail to prevent the escape of deserters and military prisoners hereafter.

Franklin Repository: July 20, 1864

The Draft For Deficiencies

Summary: Reports that the Headquarters of the Provost Marshal made a draft in Chambersburg on July 5, for “actual deficiencies on the late draft” which resulted due to exemptions. The new law that abolishes commutation does not apply to this draft, but anyone who avoids this draft by paying a commutation, can be drafted by a new call. A list of the Franklin men follows: AntrimTownship: S. Crider–J. Hicks (blacks–Richardson, Robinson, Anderson, and Newman). FannettTownship: R. Ferguson–J. Wood (blacks–R. Davis, J. Dorsey L. Day, J. Carter and J. Sanders). GreenTownship: W. McGrath–C. Culberson. HamiltonTownship: J. Linn–L. Stopler (blacks–J. Williams and C. Smith). LetterkennyTownship: H. Rife–J. RupleyLurganTownship: L. Alleman–J. Saltzman. MontgomeryTownship: W. Elliott–E. Erwin. PetersTownship: M Hoke–P. Hawbecker (blacks–C. Kane and T. Phoenix). QuincyTownship: J Walk–D. Monn ( J. Null of G., A. Rock of J. and D. Monn of D.) St. ThomasTownship: J. Taylor–J. Kridler. SouthamptonTownship: J. Snider–J. Orr (blacks–T. Cooper, L. Alexander, and J. Lucket). WarrenTownship: S. Zimmerman–S. Cullar. WashingtonTownship: S. Sheffier–L. Spellman. Waynesboro’ Borough: S. Smith–W. Hunter.

Franklin Repository: August 31, 1864


Summary: Announces that GuilfordTownship offers a $300 local bounty in addition to the government bounty, for a total of $592.

On A Visit

Summary: Reports the visit of Captain David S. Gordon, of the 2nd United States Cavalry, and Captain L. B. Kurtz, of Company G of the 17th Pennsylvania Cavalry, to their homes in Waynesboro.

Valley Spirit: September 7, 1864


Summary: Reports that John Mickley and Emanuel Burkett, of the vicinity of Waynesboro, were killed near Martinsburg, Virginia, on August 29. Both were members of Captain Kurtz’s company. Mickley’s body has been recovered, but Burkett’s has not yet been found.

Franklin Repository: September 14, 1864

Gen. Wm. H. Koontz

Summary: Announces that General William H. Koontz, the Union nominee for Congress from Somerset, spoke in Chambersburg and plans to speak in Waynesboro, Greencastle, and Mercersburg in mid-September.

Franklin Repository: September 21, 1864

The Congressional Contest

Summary: Notes that the Union candidate for Congress, General Koontz, spoke at Waynesboro, Greencastle, and Mercersburg on September 17, 19, and 20. Hopes that Coffroth, the Democrat candidate, will be honest about his voting record which the Repository believes proves his lack of support for the war.

Franklin Repository: September 28, 1864


Summary: Walker, of Washington, has been appointed State Commissioner, to go and provide blanks for elections to the soldiers to the Army of the Potomac. Tankersly is commissioned to the army of Gen. Sherman.

Franklin Repository: October 12, 1864

Death Of A Soldier

Summary: Reports the death of Henry Hennicle, son of Henry Hennicle, of the Waynesboro vicinity. Young Hennicle died while in a hospital at Richmond because of starvation. He enlisted under Capt. Walker. Origin of Article: The Waynesboro Record

Franklin Repository: October 19, 1864


Summary: Announces the appointment of Andrew G. Nevin as Post Master in Waynesboro to replace Mrs. Pilkington, who died.

Valley Spirit: December 7, 1864

Ladies’ Fair

Summary: Notes that the ladies of Waynesboro are planning a fair to be held in the town hall over the holidays. The fair will benefit the Christian Commission’s work for sick and disabled soldiers.

Resources: Valley of the Shadow, Newspaper Archives

Life On The Home Front, 1863

WaynesboroVillage Record: January 09, 1863

Arrest of Deserters

Summary: It is reported that three deserters from Frederick, Md., were arrested by Constable Herr near Waynesboro last Saturday. After committing several robberies in Frederick county, the deserters took flight but were pursued and eventually captured in Franklin county. Following an examination by Judge Stone, the trio was sent to Chambersburg to be held in that town’s jail. The property that they absconded with–several horses–has been returned to its rightful owners.

Sudden Death

Summary: Christian Good, “an aged and highly respected citizen,” died suddenly last Friday. Good was in church attending a funeral when he was struck by apoplexy. He was 79 years old.

Valley Spirit: January 14, 1863

Another Old Citizen Gone

Summary: Dr. Thomas Walker died at his residence last Friday at age 69. He had been a prominent physician in Waynesboro for more than 40 years and was a “useful and influential” citizen.

Waynesboro Village Record: January 16, 1863

The Drought

Summary: With many wells failing and the water level of streams so low that millers are unable to grind, the article notes that the region is in grip of severe drought.

The Small Pox

Summary: Several “mild” cases of small pox have been reported in Chambersburg, but, as yet, the “loathsome and terrible disease” has failed to make an appearance in Waynesboro.

Waynesboro Village Record: February 06, 1863


Summary: Sam D. Hoover, formerly a resident of Waynesboro, died on the second day of the Battle of Murfreesboro. Origin of Article: Westminister Sentinel

Home Again

Summary: Lieut. John E. Walker, member of the 77th Regiment, P. V., returned to Waynesboro after suffering a wound to his knee during the Battle of Murfreesboro. Walker, who joined the army at the outbreak of the conflict, participated in Shiloh, Corinth, and a number of other battles prior to his injury.

No Title]

Summary: It is reported that the members of the Anderson Cavalry who refused to fight in the Battle of Murfreesboro remain confined and it is uncertain what “punishment awaits them.” Although Gen. Rosecrans had offered amnesty to all who would return to duty, “the entire 477 bluntly refused.”

Waynesboro Village Record: February 13, 1863

The Small Pox

Summary: Announces that the outbreak of small pox in Waynesboro appears to be subsiding.

Waynesboro Village Record: February 20, 1863

A Heroine

Summary: A story on a woman named Mary Owens who joined the army with her husband. Under the assumed name of John Evans, Owens passed herself off as a man and enlisted in Montour county, Pennsylvania. During her eighteen month tenure, Owens took part in three battles and was wounded twice before her husband was killed. Origin of Article: Altona Register

Full Text of Article:

A Correspondent of the Atlanta Register, writing from BroadtopCity, Huntingdon county, says he had the pleasure of meeting at a place called Dudley, a woman named Mary Owens, who had just returned from the army, in full uniform. This remarkable woman accompanied her husband to the army, and fought by his side until he fell. She was in the service eighteen months, and took part in three battles, and was wounded twice; first in the face above the right eye, and then in her arm, which required her to be taken to the hospital, where she confessed the deception. She had enlisted in Danville, Montour county, Pennsylvania, under the name of John Evans, and gives as her reason for this romantic undertaking, the fact that her father was uncompromising in his hostility to her marriage with Mr. Owens, threatening violence in case she disobeyed his commands; whereupon having been secretly married, she donned the United States uniform, enlisted in the same company with her husband, endured all the hardships of the camp, the dangers of the battlefield, saw her husband fall dead by her side, and is now wounded and a widow. Mrs. Owens looks young, is rather pretty, and is the heroine of the neighborhood. She is of Welsh parentage.

On The Choice Of A Wife

Summary: A homily on the importance of choosing a good wife.

Full Text of Article:

Go my son, said the Eastern sage to Talmore, go forth to the world, be wise in the pursuit of knowledge–be wise in the accumulation of riches–be wise in the choice of friends; yet little will avail thee, if thou choosest not wisely the wife of thy bosom.

A wife! what a sacred name–what a responsible office? She must be the unspotted sanctuary to which wearied man may flee from the crimes or the world, and feel that no sin dare enter there. A wife? She must be the guardian angel of his footsteps, on earth, and guide them to Heaven; so firm in virtue that should he for a moment waver, she can yield him support, and replace him upon his firm foundation: so happy in conscious innocence, that when from the perplexities of the world he turns to his home, he may never find a frown where he sought a smile. Such, my son, thou seekest in a wife–and reflect well ere thou choosest.

Open not thy bosom to the trifler; repose not thy head on the breast that nurseth envy and folly and vanity. Hope not for obedience where the passions are untamed; and expect not honor from her who honoreth not the God who made her.

Though thy place be next to the throne of princes and the countenance of loyalty, beam upon thee–though thy riches be as the pearls of Omar, and thy name honored from the East to the West, little will avail thee if darkness and disappointment, and strife be in thine own habitation. There must be passed thine hours in solitude and sickness–and there must thou die. Reflect then, my son, ere thou choosest, and look well to her ways whom thou wouldst love; for though thou be wise in other things–little will it avail thee if thou choosest not wisely the wife of thy bosom.


Summary: After a furlough of several weeks in Waynesboro, Capt. W. W. Walker returned to his regiment yesterday.

[No Title]

Summary: Last Friday, Lieut. Ford, of the Provost Battalion, died at McConnelsburg from injuries he suffered several weeks earlier while pursuing a deserter named John Forney.

[No Title]

Summary: It is reported that the controversy involving the Anderson Troops has been rectified. One regiment has been released from confinement and has returned to duty. An agreement was reached with the soldiers, granting them the right to select their own officers. Additionally, they have been given new assignments: body guards for General Rosecrans

Waynesboro Village Record: March 06, 1863


Summary: An announcement that Capt. John E. Walker, of Co. A, 77th Regiment, P. V., has returned to his unit. Walker had been in Waynesboro on furlough while recovering from wounds he suffered at the Battle of Murfreesboro.

Another Soldier Deceased

Summary: A report that Benjamin Snowberger, son of David Snowberger, died last Saturday of Typhoid Fever. Snowberger, a member of the Co. G, 17th Pennsylvania Cavalry, was confined at CampSimmons, Harrisburg, for ten days before being sent home, where he “lingered” for nineteen weeks until his death.

Deserter Shot

Summary: Last Saturday, Samuel Wade, of Co. A, 77th Regiment P. V., was shot near Buena Vista Springs while trying to escape from the Provost Guard, who had arrested him earlier. Though serious, the piece relates, Wade’s wounds are not life threatening.

What is to be Done with Northern Traitors

Summary: The editorial argues that northern traitors should be relentlessly denounced; resorting to violence to deal with them “would only silence and not cure the rascals of their villainies.”

The Income Tax

Summary: In response to readers’ concerns about the details of the new income tax law, the article seeks to mollify their apprehension by explaining the legislation’s key provisions.

Waynesboro Village Record: March 27, 1863

Horse Thieves

Summary: Last Sunday, a valuable horse belonging to John Funk was stolen from the shed in Kurtz’s Hotel yard. A second horse was stolen from John Welty on Tuesday as well.


Summary: On two occasions last week, reports the article, rebel sympathizers met after dark on the streets of Waynesboro to celebrate Jeff Davis, Stonewall Jackson, and the Southern Confederacy. “The ‘copperheads,’” it notes, “are evidently growing more bold.”

“Only Poor Men To Be Drafted”

Summary: Countering “tory” allegations that the Union army is only drafting poor men, the piece argues that the conscription policy, which sets the limit for substitution at $300, “is actually for the benefit of the poorer classes.”

Full Text of Article:

“Only Poor Men to be Drafted..”–The frequent allegations of the tory press throughout Pennsylvania, whose positions upon the question of Union or Disunion are perhaps not yet fully determined, that the conscription law compels only poor men to enter the army are ridiculous. It will be seen by reading the clause in relation to substitutes, that the fine provided for exemption is not fixed at any particular sum, but shall not exceed three hundred dollars. The drafted man is allowed to procure his own substitute, at any price he may agree upon, or, if he prefers, the Government will provide one for him at a price not exceeding $300. Did not the law contain this limitation, the price of substitutes would in all probability range much higher than that sum. The rich, being able to pay, would bid high, while the poor would be unable to pay the price to which over-bidding would raise the substitute market. Thus, instead of being an oppressive provision, the $300 restriction is actually for the benefit of the poorer classes. The provision under which the Government undertakes to furnish substitutes for a sum not to exceed $300, is in fact one of the best features of the bill.

Waynesboro Village Record: April 03, 1863

Volume Closed

Summary: A message from the editors announcing that the current issue ends the sixteenth volume of the Village Record. The focus of the piece is on the newspaper’s claim to political impartiality, which, they admit, has been called into question lately by local copperheads.

Full Text of Article:

Volume Closed–This number closes the sixteenth volume of the Village Record, twelve years having elapsed since the establishment passed into our hands. It affords us no little gratification to be able to say that through our own efforts and the influence of friends the office at this time enjoys a degree of patronage fully equal to the past, notwithstanding the united efforts of “copperheads” for the last eighteen months to cripple our business. With this end in view they have resorted to all manner of falsehood and misrepresentation, and in some instances have succeeded in getting well-meaning men to proscribe us. These cases have been rare however, most of those withdrawing being active sympathizers with treason. Of course the paper would prove obnoxious to this class, some of which have paid us, whilst others more consistent with their general character for meanness than the former, have swindled us out of their arrearages. One argument which these “copperheads” have been using against us is that we publish a political paper. It is a high crime in their estimation for a paper neutral in politics to denounce traitors of the Vallandigham stripe North, and thus advocate the cause of the Union and true democracy. They call this partiality, abuse of the democratic party, etc. If a paragraph has ever appeared in these columns casting improper reflections upon the loyal democracy of the North we are not aware of it. Such a paragraph we defy the chief among Jeff Davis’ admirers here to produce. The paper will be continued as heretofore–“Neutral in Politics and Religion”–but when it comes to treason and those who sympathize with it, we purpose putting in where we can the “best licks in the shop.” Neutrality between political parties and neutrality between loyalty and disloyalty, according to our way of thinking, is quite different. Our respect for a democrat and his opinion is the same now that it ever was, and those who seek to undermine our business as above stated make a sham of the term “Democracy” to more effectually aid the cause of treason, and at the same time escape if possible the odious appellation of TRAITOR.

To those patrons who have responded to our appeal by promptly settling their accounts many of them paying their subscription in advance, we acknowledge our indebtedness, and hope to be able to merit their continued patronage and influence. We have concluded to continue the paper at its present size without increase of price, although we now pay two dollars for paper instead of one dollar, the price paid three months ago. We therefore appeal to those yet in arrears to call and settle their accounts. It will be impossible for us to contend with present prices successfully, with the lying “copperheads” resorting to every means in their power [section illegible].

At Home

Summary: Capt. L.B. Kurtz, of Co. G 17th Cavalry, has returned to his regiment after spending several days with his family while on leave.


Summary: Col. McKibben, of the 158th Penn. Infantry, was “disabled” after his horse fell on his leg in an accident. McKibben has returned to Philadelphia to recover, and Lt. Col. E. S. Troxel, of Waynesboro, has assumed his command in New Bern, N. C., where the 158th is currently stationed.

A Soldier’s Remains

Summary: The remains of Orderly Sergt. Samuel D. Hoover, of Co. A. 13th Reg. Ohio Vol., were interred in the burying ground attached to the German Reformed Church last Sunday. Hoover was killed in the Battle of Murfreesboro in December.

Lieut. Gordon

Summary: A report that Lieut. D. S. Gordon, 2nd U. S. Cavalry, formerly of Waynesboro, has been named to the Staff of Maj. General Schenck as Acting Assisting Adjunct General.

Valley Spirit: April 8, 1863

Railroad Accident

Summary: John H. Laker of QuincyTownship, while driving his wagon over the “Waynesboro Cut” across the railroad tracks, was hit by the afternoon train from Hagerstown last Saturday. He and his horse escaped without harm, but his wagon was destroyed. A public meeting held shortly thereafter in Quincy resolved to petition the legislature to pass a law forcing the railroad company to bridge the cut.

Lieut. Gordon

Summary: The writer notes the name of Lieut. D. S. Gordon, 2nd U. S. Cavalry, formerly of Waynesboro, as listed among the staff of Major General Schneck.

Waynesboro Village Record: April 14, 1863

Copperheads And Future History

Summary: History, promises the editors, will not look kindly upon northerners who were sympathetic to the Confederate cause. Like the Tories who supported the British during the War of Independence, they are on the wrong side of history; yet, the editors concede, at least the Tories could account for their behavior by claiming to have “the apology of retaining” their “original loyalty.”

Full Text of Article:

When this rebellion shall have been suppressed–and it cannot last long at longest–every actor in it will receive honor or dishonor. Every American, high or low, is an actor in it. He can’t escape it if he would for neutrality is in itself defection and disloyalty. It will be known and remembered how every man bore himself in this crisis of the nation’s life–every man from ocean to ocean. With men in general it will not be written on the page of history; but it will be written on a tablet yet more distinct, the living memory. Ten, twenty, thirty, fifty years hence it will be inquired about, and it will be known how every American who was on the stage in the Great Rebellion then acted, whether he took sides for or against the Government; and every man, woman and child in the country will understand it. The honor and dishonor of it will cleave not only to the individual himself, but to his children.

There are those living who remember the odium which, after the Revolution, clung to every Tory to his latest breath. No intellectual accomplishment, nor any moral worth could exempt them from it. But more than that, it was transmitted to his children and his children’s children. Even to this day the American whose ancestor at that time was known as a Tory, hears of it with burning shame. Similar contempt was entailed upon the blue-light Federalists of the last war. So far as regards the private character of its members, the Hartford Convention of 1814 was probably equal to any political assembly ever held in this country; but after the war closed every man of them to his dying day was held in dishonor. He could no more obtain a public office than if he had been positively disqualified by law. The ban of public opinion was upon him. Though it was very clearly shown in subsequent years that the majority of the Convention had no such treasonable intentions as imputed to it, yet it is enough that it was a peace assemblage calculated to embarrass the Government. To this day the Hartford Convention is a by-word and reproach. There were Federalists who did not approve of the Convention, and yet even they do not fully escape. It is still everywhere a reproach to have been at that time an opponent of the Administration at all.

What hath been will be–only in greater measure. The revolutionary Tory at least had the apology of retaining his original loyalty. The peace Federalists of the last war acted against the Government only in its external relations, and the peace they sought involved no vital injury to the nation itself. But the copperhead of the present day proves false to all loyalty, and is recreant in a sense which the Tory was not. He is traitorous, too, in a sense in which the last war Federalists was not; for his peace policy inevitably carries with it the disruption and destruction of the Republic, while the other peace policy would not have affected the unity and perpetuity of the Republic at all. There has been in American history no public treachery so unqualified, and so utterly incapable of extenuation, as that of the Copperhead of ’63; and which was followed with such a terrible reckoning as will be hereafter exacted for this.

So far as regards the judgement of the next generation, a man of the present day had better commit almost any crime in the calendar, than be guilty of furthering the ends of the rebellion by advocating peace, or in any other manner. He might better leave his children without a dollar than entail upon them the scandal of a father who turned against his country in the day of her extremity.

Waynesboro Village Record: May 08, 1863

Borough Election

Summary: The following is the result of the recent borough election: Chief Burgess, Jacob R. Welsh; Councilmen, David Hahn, L. K. Morrison, Joseph W. Miller, Joseph Bender, and George Harbaugh; High Constable, Pius D. Zindorff.

Thieves About Again

Summary: Last Friday, thieves broke into the office of the Snow Hill Society and stole thirty loaves of bread and large quantities of sugar, butter, and apple butter. The next day, Jacob Hess’s smoke house was burgled, it is presumed by the same party; the thieves escaped with all of his bacon, eight hams and a number of shoulders.

Another Soldier Deceased

Summary: News has arrived that Amos Snowberger, son of David Snowberger, of Quincy township, died on April 18th in New Bern, N. C. Snowberger, a private in the Co. E. 158th Regiment Penna. Infantry, was the second son in his family to die while serving his country.

Death of Young Shockey

Summary: On May 3rd, William Shockey, of Co. G. 17th Penna. Cavalry, died near Aqua Creek Landing, Va. of typhoid fever. The soldier’s remains were brought to Waynesboro on Tuesday and interred the following day on the burial ground on Mr. Hoover’s farm, near Ringold.

Provost Marshall

Summary: George Eyster, of Chambersburg, was named Provost Marshall for Franklin county’s Congressional District. According to the Conscription Law drafted the year before, Eyster will be responsible for overseeing the draft, should one be necessary, and the arrest of all deserters.

Physician Dead

Summary: Dr. Luther M. Miller, of Welsh Run, died last Tuesday of pulmonary disease, from which he had been suffering for the past couple years. Prior to his death, Miller was in the care of Thomas Bowles. Origin of Article: Pilot

Seven Negroes Burned To Death

Summary: Last Sunday seven blacks–one man, one woman, and five children–were killed in a blaze that destroyed Joseph Sprigg’s stable, where the victims were living. The fire, says the article, was deliberately set.

[No Title]

Summary: A letter to David Snowberger from Capt. Barnitz detailing the last moments of his son’s death. Amos Snowberger died suddenly in New Bern from the effects of disease.

Trailer: William T. Barnitz

Waynesboro Village Record: May 22, 1863


Summary: Though they have been both vilified and valorized throughout history, women, notes the article, are “average human beings,” who have “made themselves effectual elements in the ordering of human affairs.” No man, it concludes, has ever succeeded without the support of a good woman.

Full Text of Article:

From the earliest ages to the present time women have been alternately worshiped as “angels” and reviled as “cats” and “serpents”–according as they have behaved to their adorers and detractors. Women puzzled King Solomon and perplexed St. Paul. Messages to his female converts testify to the difficulty some of them caused him. In our day, however, our schoolboy seems to think he can solve all the difficulties of the woman question–their natural tendencies, possibilities and prospects in this life. Woman, instead of being, as heretofore, the rock on which wise men have split, are now become little more than the blocks which fools try to cut with their razors, while waiting for their beards to grow. What women have been, we know pretty well–average human beings, on the whole doing their duties as well as they know how, nurturing the qualities of their husbands, their sons or their brothers. They have made themselves effectual elements in the ordering of human affairs. There is no instance where a man has become a great leader, either as general, statesman or religious reformer, who had not some woman living at the root of his inner life, fostering his ideas and his aims–with whom he has taken counsel–out of whose thoughts he has derived nutriment for his own thoughts–who has helped him, and believed in him, and advised him; and stuck to him, when the whole world seemed against him. Women do not often achieve greatness for themselves, but they are at the bottom of all that is good and the most of what is bad, in the world.

Valley Spirit: May 27, 1863

The Reception of the 126th Regiment

Summary: The editors describe and praise the ceremonies celebrating the return of the 126th Reg’t Penn. Volunteers to FranklinCounty.

Full Text of Article:

Last Saturday was a grand gala-day for Chambersburg–a day of happiness and rejoicing and good cheer. Early in the week, persons from a distance came to town, in the expectation that our brave boys of the 126th Regiment would reach home by that time; and most of them remained until the close of the week, though it was ascertained on Thursday that they would not arrive until Saturday. Early on the morning of the latter day, the people from the country began pouring into town from every direction. The Hotels were soon filled to overflowing, and their yards and the neighboring streets lined with vehicles of every description. And then the towns-people began to run out their flags and close their places of business, as the Court House bell announced that the train was on its way from Harrisburg, bringing home the loved ones whose coming had been so anxiously awaited. It was soon manifest that the people–men, women and children–fathers, mothers, wives, sisters, brothers and friends–were resolved to give the returning volunteers such a reception as they deserved–independent of politics and the small politicians. At the third ringing of the bell, which was the signal that the train had reached Shippensburg, the crowd wended its way towards the Depot, w[h]ere every available space was soon filled. About half-past ten, the bell on the Catholic church announced that the train had turned the curve three miles from town, and then the excitement became intense. The train halted at “the intersection;” and the procession, consisting of the Provost Guard, the cadets of the Academy, under command of Mr. Kinney, thirty-four little girls dressed in white and bearing the national colors, representing the States of the Union, a carriage containing Colonel Elder, and another with Judges Chambers and Nill, received the volunteers, who were under command of Lieut. Col. Rowe, on Broad Street. The procession moved up Second Street to Market, out East Market to “the point,” in East Queen to Second, up Second to Catharine, down Catharine to Main, down Main to the Diamond, out West Market to New England Hill, and then countermarched to the Diamond, where the address of welcome was delivered by Rev. S.J. Niccolls. Along the route the pavements were thronged with spectators, and dainty little flags and cambric fluttered from every window as the procession passed-beauty doing honor to valor. After the address and some music by the Band and the little girls, the soldiers were invited to partake of a collation in the Hall, prepared by the ladies of the town. The Hall was beautifully decorated with evergreen and flowers; the walls were adorned with the national colors and many such inscriptions as: “Welcome to our brave defenders, “Tyler’s brave boys,” “Welcome 126th,” “Honor to the brave,” &c., &c. There were seven long tables, running the entire length of the Hall, and these tables groaned under a profusion of all the substantials and delicacies the country could afford. A noted feature in the procession was the band wagon containing a number of the wounded in the late battles.

After the collation, Companies B. C. E. and K. again took the cars for their respective home, Greencastle, Waynesboro and Mercersburg, where similar receptions awaited them.

The day passed off very peaceably and quietly. We believe we have seldom or never seen such a large crowd in town, with so little drunkenness, rowdyism or disdurbance [sic]. The returned soldiers, to a man, conducted themselves in a manner that comported with the honorable name they have won; and despite the predictions of rowdyism, indulged in by some of their professed friends, they proved that under their bearded and sun burnt faces there was still to be found that high sense of justice, honor and manliness, which always characterizes the American citizen soldier.

Waynesboro Village Record: May 29, 1863

The Hog Law

Summary: The editors praise the decision made by Waynesboro’s High Constable to enforce the hog law. Already, they declare, several arrests have been made.

Dinner for the Soldiers

Summary: Informs readers that the dinner for the returning members of the Co. E. 126th Regiment P. V. will be held at the Grove on George Jacobs’s farm.

Returned Soldiers

Summary: Discharged members of Co. E. 126th arrived back in town on Saturday evening causing quite a stir. Led by Capt. William Askwith, a delegation from Waynesboro met the soldiers near Greencastle and escorted them the rest of the way. Addresses were given by Rev. Dr. Dorsey and Rev. Kester to mark the occasion.

Another Horse Stolen

Summary: Once again, says the article, John Funk had his horse stolen from the stable yard of Kurtz’s Hotel. It is widely accepted that the thieves are men who live in-town or nearby.

Waynesboro Village Record: June 05, 1863

Female Character

Summary: The piece alerts women to the fact that, contrary to what they might believe, men want their women to be pious. Men, it maintains, know that “human nature connects a religious feeling with softness and sensibility of heart.”

Full Text of Article:

FEMALE CHARACTER.–Ladies are greatly deceived when they think that they recommend themselves to the other sex by an indifference to religion. Every man who knows human nature, connects a religious feeling with softness and sensibility of heart. At least we always consider the want of it a proof of that masculine spirit, which of all your faults, we dislike the most. Beside, men consider your religion as the best security for that female virtue in which they are most sensibly interested. Never indulge yourselves in ridicule on religious subjects, nor give countenance to it in others by seeming diverted with what they say. This, to people of good understanding, will be a sufficient check.

Let a woman be decked with all the embellishments of art and the gifts of nature, yet, if boldness is to be read in her face, it blots all the lines of beauty. Modesty is not only an ornament, but also a guard to virtue. It is a delicate feeling in the soul, which makes her shrink and withdraw herself from the appearance of danger. It is an exquisite sensibility, that warns her to shun the approach of everything brutal


Summary: The article proudly notes Lieut. D. S. Gordon’s promotion to captain. Gordon, a member of the 2nd Regiment Regular Cavalry, is attached to the Staff of Maj. Gen. Schneck. He is former resident of the town.

The Enrollment

Summary: Lieut. George W. Walker has accepted an appointment to serve as the enrollment officer for Washington township. Prior to his new position, Walker was an officer in Co. E, whose members spoke of him in the “highest terms.”

The Coming Draft

Summary: The article lays out the provisions contained within the instructions issued to the Provost Marshals relative to the draft, including the stipulation subjecting all males, black or white, to military duty.

Enrolling Officers

Summary: The Provost Marshall appointed the following men as Franklin county’s enrollment officers: Jacob Shook, Antrim township; Lewis Heck, Chambersburg; R. P. Hazlet, South Ward; Harrison Witherow, Fannet township; John Spidle, Greene; George H. Cook, Guilford; Jonas Palmer, Hamilton; William S. Keefer, Letterkenny; Morrow R. Skinner, Lurgan; John Wolff, Metal; Re. Parker McFarland; Montgomery; Benjamin C. Dawney, Peters; William Fleagle, Quincy; James Montgomery, St. Thomas; David Spencer, Southampton; John Zimmerman, Warren; George W. Walker, Washington.

Copperheads Jubilant

Summary: Late Saturday night, says the article, a number of “copperheads” congregated around the public square to voice their support of Jeff Davis and Vallandigham, who, it appears, has become their “pet.”

[No Title]

Summary: The editors express their belief that an early peace will only be achieved through a “hearty prosecution of the war” and “a vindication of law.” Anyone who says otherwise is a “dishonest demagogue.”

Full Text of Article:

Every individual who desires an early peace should give the administration a hearty support in the prosecution of the war. There is only one way to peace, and that is by a suppression of the rebellion and a vindication of law. He who represents otherwise, either deceives himself or is a dishonest demagogue. The men who seek to embarrass the administration unquestionably prolong the war, cause a sacrifice of life, make more drafting necessary, and endanger the free institutions of the country. In this great conflict we must either attain peace by subduing the rebels or allowing them to triumph, and see ourselves cast upon a sea of anarchy, to be drifted about on that sea without chart or rudder.

Waynesboro Village Record: June 12, 1863

Copperhead Logic

Summary: According to the article, it is quite easy to determine the motives underlying copperheads’ support for the Confederacy: naked self-interest. Proponents of the southern cause in New York advocate “peace at any cost” because they “lost the Southern trade” as a consequence of the war. Similarly, supporters of the rebel cause in Illinois are spurred primarily by the drop in the price of corn occasioned by the onset of the conflict. These malcontents, the article declares, would rather “break up the nation” than sacrifice their own personal economic interests.

“CopperHead” Sheet

Summary: The article notes the appearance of a new copperhead journal in Philadelphia, the Age. The new publication expresses sentiments so treasonable, says the piece, that a man would have to be a “bold, bonified traitor” to endorse such opinions.

For Clerk of the Courts

Summary: It is reported that local Union men have convinced W. H. Brotherton to run for clerk of the Courts, a decision praised by the editors of the Village Record.

Newspaper Change

Summary: A. K. McClure has purchased the Repository and Transcript and the Dispatch, and plans to merge the two newspapers together. McClure and H. S. Stoner will join forces to pursue the new enterprise.

A Patriot

Summary: Ridicules the Valley Spirit for describing Vallandigham as a “Patriot,” and asserts that the local Democratic organ would no doubt label Jeff Davis the same.

Death of a Soldier

Summary: Jeremiah Shockey, member of Co. I 106th Reg. Illinois Volunteers, died at Boliver, Ky, on May 24th. Shockey, a former resident of Waynesboro, was 32 years old.

Copperhead Love of Free Speech

Summary: To highlight the copperheads’ hypocrisy regarding free speech, the piece relates the story of a elderly gentleman who was heckled and ultimately dragged from the stage at a copperhead meeting in New York because he asserted that South Carolina started the war.

Editorial Comment: “On Monday evening of last week, the Copperheads of New York city, held a meeting to denounce the arrest of Vallandigham and to assert the right of free speech. An old gentlemen was introduced on the platform, who said:”

The Coming Draft

Summary: Dispels the rumor circulating that drafted men will not have to serve longer than 9 months from the date of enlistment. According to the 11th section of the Enrollment Act, the article declares, all men conscripted into the military shall remain in the service during the war, but not longer than three years.

Important About the Prospective Draft

Summary: The Provost Marshall will begin conscripting soldiers immediately, though he will not call on nine-months men for the first draft. Those men who fall into that category and opt to volunteer, it is said, will be paid a large bounty.

Franklin Repository: July 8, 1863

Invasion Of Pennsylvania!

Summary: The Repository provides a detailed account of the Rebel General Jenkins’s first invasion and occupation of Chambersburg, which began on June 17. It reports that Jenkins prevented much damage, but “robbed” stores (paying with “bogus money”–Confederate scrip) of most goods. His men took arms and horses as contraband of war. Many horses and most of the black population escaped to the mountains. The Repository calculated $300,000 in property damage.

Full Text of Article:

Jenkins’ Rebel Guerillas on a Raid!

A Full Week in FranklinCo.!

The Whole Southern Line Plundered!

$300,000 of Property Stolen!

New York First to the Rescue!

FranklinCounty has had a full week of rebel guerilla rule, and is now, in the Southern portion, plundered of all horses and cattle, excepting the few successfully secreted in the mountains.

Rebels Snub the Copperheads.

A very [illegible] of our citizens exhibited the craven [illegible] the genuine Copperhead; but Jenkins and his men, in no instance, treated them with [illegible] courtesy. That they made use of some such creatures to obtain information can [illegible] be doubted; but they spurned all attempts [illegible] claim their respect because of professed [illegible] with their cause. To one who [illegible] to make fair weather with Jenkins [illegible] professions of sympathy with the [illegible], he answered–“Well, if you believe we are right, take your gun and join our ranks!” It is needless to say that the cowardly [illegible] did not obey. To another he said– “[illegible] we had such men as you in the South, we would hang them!” They say, on all occasions, that there are but two modes of peace–disunion or subjugation–and they stoutly deny that the latter is possible. Lieut. Reilly had [illegible] returned from West Point the day the rebels reached here, and of his presence and [illegible] they were minutely advised, for [illegible] called at the house and compelled his sister to go with them into every room to search for him. Gen. Jenkins also had the fullest information of the movements of the Editor of this paper. He told at our own house, [illegible] had left, the direction we had gone, [illegible] described the horse we rode, and added that there were people in Chambersburg sufficiently cowardly and treacherous to give such information of their neighbors. When it was suggested that such people should be sent within the rebel lines, he insisted that the South should not be made a Botany Bay for Northern scoundrels.

Negroes Taken South.

Quite a number of Negroes, free and slave–men, women and children–were captured by Jenkins and started South to be sold into bondage. Many escaped in various ways, and the people of Greencastle captured the guard of one negro [illegible] in and discharged the negroes; but, perhaps a full fifty were got off to slavery. One negro effected his escape by shooting and seriously wounding his rebel guard. He forced the gun from the rebel and fired, wounding [illegible] in the head, and then skedaddled. Some of the men were bound with ropes, and the children were mounted in front or behind the rebels on their horses. By great exertions of several citizens some of the negroes were discharged.

The Southern Border Plundered.

The southern border of this county has been literally plundered of everything in the stock line, excepting such as could be secreted. But it was difficult to secrete stock, as the rebels spent a full week in the county, and leisurely hunted out horses and cattle without molestation. The citizens were unable to protect themselves, and owing to the [illegible] of promptness of [illegible] citizens elsewhere [illegible] respond to the call for troops, aid could [illegible] be had. We have [illegible] sufficient data to estimate the loss sustained by the county; but it cannot fall short of a quarter of a million of dollars. It is a fearful blow to our people, coming as it does in the throngest [sic] season of the year, and many croppers, who had little else than their stock, have been rendered almost if not entirely bankrupt by the raid. If the people of Pennsylvania will not fight to protect the State from invasion, the sufferers have a right to claim compensation from the common treasury of the State. The State professes to protect its citizens in the enjoyment of all their rights, and there is no justice in withholding the common tribute from individual sufferers. Among the many unfortunate, perhaps the greatest sufferer, is ex-Sheriff Taylor, from whom the rebels captured a drove of fat cattle in Fulton county. His loss is some $7,000.


The rebels seemed omnipresent according to reports. They were on several occasions since their departure from this place just about to re-enter it, and the panic-stricken made a corresponding exit at the other side. On Thursday the 18th, they were reported within two miles of here, in large force, and a general skedaddle took place; and again on Sunday, the 21st, they were reported coming with reinforcements. A few ran off, but most of our people, knowing that there was a military force to fall back upon between this and Scotland, shouldered their guns and fell into ranks to give battle.–Prominent among these were noticed Rev. Mr. Niccolls, whose people missed a sermon in his determination to pop a few rebels.

Arrival of New York Troops.

On Sunday, 28th, the 8th New York Militia arrived here, having marched from Shippensburg, and they were received with the wildest enthusiasm. Considering that they are on our border in advance of any Pennsylvania regiments, they merit, as they will receive, the lasting gratitude of every man in the Border.

The Venerable Greys.

The old men of the town organized a company, headed by Hon. George Chambers, for the defence of the town. None were admitted under forty-five. On Monday every man capable of bearing arms had his gun and was in some organization to resist the rebels.

Political Items

Summary: The Repository reports general news about conventions and nominations, including the nomination of the banished traitor Vallandigham for governor in Ohio.

Address By Rev. Samuel J. Niccolls

Summary: In his speech, Rev. Niccolls honors the regiment, not for their participation in recent battles and slaughter, but for their sacrifices in defending their country. He expresses gratitude that so many of the soldiers came back alive. This joy is mingled with grief for those who did not return. Niccolls hopes that the state will some day soon be unified and at peace again.

Editorial Comment: “Delivered at Chambersburg, May 28d, 1863, before the 126th Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers.”

The Income Tax

Summary: Details an important decision by the Commissioner of the Internal Revenue, including the definition of residence, income, losses, and deductions.

Soldier Wives

Summary: Fanny Fern reminds readers of the heroism of soldiers’ wives and the hardships they face.

A Southern Boast

Summary: The Nashville Union mocks the Richmond Whig’s boast of the abilities of Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson.

Origin of Article: NashvilleUnion

Description of Page: The page includes articles on Tread Power, making quality butter, precautions against the weather, and good haymaking.

A Word To Farmers

Summary: The author urges farmers to exchange advice on agricultural improvement through the press, thus bringing “incalculable advantages” to the entire community.

The Franklin Repository

Summary: Alex K. McClure and Henry S. Stoner are the new editors and proprietors of the Franklin Repository. The article provides descriptions of the paper and its news contacts. The Franklin Repository asserts its dedication to the “positive and unconditional re-union of the States” and its support of the administrations of President Abraham Lincoln and Governor Curtin.

The Victory At Gettysburg

Summary: The Repository provides a brief and general description of the battle at Gettysburg, and especially discusses the retreat of the rebels. The author praises General Meade, who had received the command only three days before the battle.

[No Title]

Summary: The Democratic State Convention met on June 17 and nominated Hon. George W. Woodward for Governor, and Hon. Walter H. Lowrie for Supreme Judge. The author complains that the Convention made no mention of defending Pennsylvania from the occupying rebels.

[No Title]

Summary: The Repository expresses gratitude to New York’s 8th and 71st regiments, which helped in the battle in Pennsylvania, and New York’s 7th, which bolstered forces in Baltimore.

[No Title]

Summary: Reports that pages 2, 3, 6, and 7 were printed three weeks ago, but publication was suspended for two weeks due to the occupation by the rebels of Chambersburg.

(No Title)

Summary: Explains that the Dispatch and Repository have merged into a single paper, and that Dispatch subscribers will now receive the Repository.

A Great Victory!

Summary: Details the battle at Gettysburg, including dispatches from Gen. Meade. The accounts include Gen. Lee’s attempt to call a temporary truce to bury the dead and exchange prisoners, and also praise for the brave (and wounded) Gen. Hancock.


Summary: On June 11, at the home of Capt. J. Sprecher near Chambersburg, by the Rev. J. Dickson, James Cress, M. S., of Gettysburg, married Margaret R. Durboraw, daughter of Mr. Durboraw, Esq., of AdamsCounty.


Summary: On June 4, in the Central Presbyterian church, of Baltimore, Maryland, by the Rev. Joseph T. Smith, D.D., William Kennedy, Esq., of Chambersburg, married Ellen A. Culbertson, of Baltimore, Maryland.


Summary: On June 16, by the Rev. H. Heckerman, J. Henry Hutton, of Chambersburg, married Emma J. Taylor, daughter of the late Judge Taylor, of Bedford, Pennsylvania.


Summary: On June 9, at the Lutheran parsonage, by Rev. J. Steck, John M. Forney, of Strasburg, married Margaret A. Frank, of Chambersburg.

Summary: On June 10, by Rev. J. Steck, Jacob R. Lightcat married Lydia S. Houser, both of Chambersburg.


Summary: On June 7, in Chambersburg, at the residence of her grandsons, Messrs. T. and S. A. Cook, Sarah Jeffrey died at age 87.

Summary: On June 9, at the home of his mother, in Chambersburg, Edward L. Smith died at age 36 years, 7 months, and 9 days.

Summary: On June 11, in GreenTownship, Easter Freet, wife of Christian Freet, died at age 54 years, 8 months, and 27 days.

Summary: On June 19, George Goettmann, died at age 25 years, 9 months, and 2 days.


Summary: On May 26, after a pulmonary illness, George Peakle, of Little Cove, FranklinCounty, died in his 64th year.


Summary: On June 3, in Delavan, Tazewell County, Illinois, Laura N. McDowell, daughter of William McDowell, formerly of FranklinCounty, died in her 26th year.

Death Of A Venerable Lady

Summary: Announces the death of Sarah Jeffries on July 7 in Chambersburg at the age 87.

Our Drafted Men

Summary: The editors have received the address of Brig. Gen. Spinola who is in charge of the 158th Pa. Vols., which is made up of men from Franklin and surrounding counties. The General praises the behavior of his forces. The paper praises Col. McKibbin and the 158th.

Return Of Mr. Helser And Son

Summary: Announces the return of Solomon Helser and his son, who were arrested and banished from FranklinCounty (perhaps the Union).

Full Text of Article:

–We learn that Mr. Solomon Helser and his son, who were arrested some weeks ago in this place, and by Gen. Schenck sent to Gen. Milroy with orders to send them beyond our lines, have been allowed to return, and are now at home, and have taken the oath of allegiance to the government. It is not publicly known on what specific charges the Helsers were arrested, but we understand that, when with Gen. Milroy, they received a suspension of the sentence of banishment until they could have an opportunity to rebut the charges preferred against them. As they have since been discharged, we infer that the evidence produced either acquitted them, or mitigated the offences materially, and they are entitled to the benefit of a charitable judgment. Mr. Helser should so demean himself now that there may be no question about his loyalty. There can be no neutrals in this war. Neutrality is impossible–indifference criminal.


Summary: Notes the promotion of Sergeant Peter Cummings to 2nd Lieutenant–he was recruited from this region to General Campbell’s regiment in Battery A and fought in numerous battles.

The United States Hotel

Summary: David H. Hutchinson, formerly of Franklin, is a partner in the recent purchase of the United States Hotel in Harrisburg.

War Claims

Summary: Maj. John M. Pomeroy, formerly of Franklin, is in charge of War claims against either the state or national government, and is located in Philadelphia.

A Public Dinner

Summary: A dinner was given to returned nine months’ soldiers in Waynesboro, where the Revs. Dr. Dorsey, Krebs and Kester, and Col. Rowe and I. H. McCauley, Esq., gave addresses.

Mr. George Trostle

Summary: George Trostle, father of Daniel Trostle of Chambersburg, died in AdamsCounty, at the age of nearly 88.


Summary: Lieut. D. S. Gordon, 2d Regular Cavalry, late of WashingtonTownship, has been promoted to a Captaincy and attached to the staff of Gen Schenck. His promotion was “well earned by gallant service in the field.”

Valley Spirit: July 8, 1863

New York First in the Field

Summary: The editors note that Gov. Seymour of New York, upon hearing of the invasion of Pennsylvania, telegraphed Governor Curtain and promised him 15 regiments in defense of the state and soon had 14 under marching orders. This should disprove, claim the editors, any accusations by abolitionists that impugned the loyalty of a “copperhead” such as Seymour.

The Fourth

Summary: The town celebrated the Fourth of July as best it could, raising the flag on a makeshift flagpole, “extemporized for the occasion.” William I. Cook read the Declaration of Independence; “able, patriotic and eloquent” speeches were given by Hon. George W. Brewer, W. S. Stenger and W. S. Everett, Esqs., and Reverends Forney and Dixon.


Summary: The editors are “pained to see” among the list of wounded from the battles at Gettysburg the names of Lieut. Col. J. McThomson, Captain Jacob V. Gish, and Lieutenants Carman and Myers, all of the 107th Reg’t Penn. Volunteers.

Hung Himself

Summary: Absalom Shetter, a farmer residing half a mile east of Chambersburg, hung himself in his orchard early on Sunday morning. The Confederates had made off with his stock and grain, and he had gone insane as a result. An inquest was conducted by Esquire Hamman, who returned a verdict of death by hanging.

Full Text of Article:

Early on Sunday morning last, Mr. Absalom Shetter residing half a mile east of town, committed suicide by hanging. The rebels had carried away all his stock and grain, and his mind became totally impaired. He was found hanging in the orchard, whither he had wandered during the night. As soon as he was discovered, an inquest was summoned by Esquire Hamman, who returned a verdict of death by hanging.


Summary: Sergeant Peter Cummins has been promoted, for “gallant and meritorious conduct,” to the 2nd Lieutenancy of Battery B, 1st Penn. Artillery. Sgt. Cummins has been with the battery since its organization, and has participated in most of the battles in Eastern Virginia (Drainsville, Mechanicsville, Malvern Hill, Bull Run, SouthMountain, Antietam and Fredericksburg). Since the death of “the lamented Easton,” the battery has been under the command of 1st Lieut. William Stitt.

“The Keystone Brigade”

Summary: The editors publish the address of General Spinola upon taking leave of the “Keystone Brigade,” made up entirely of drafted men from Pennsylvania, which is highly complimentary to the men. The 158th Reg’t Penn. Militia, raised and organized in FranklinCounty, is part of this brigade, and is presently stationed in Washington, North Carolina.

Valley Spirit: July 15, 1863

Unquestioning Support

Summary: The writer challenges the Republican argument that attacks on the administration are tantamount to attacks on the government. If the Democrats had applied the same standard when they were in power, particularly under Buchanan’s administration, Republicans would have been as freely arrested as Democrats are now.

Origin of Article: Patriot and Union

Proceedings of the Democratic State Convention

Summary: A summary of the activities of the Democratic State Convention held in Harrisburg on June 17. George W. Woodward was nominated for Governor on the ninth ballot, while Walter H. Lowrie was nominated for Chief Judge by acclimation. A number of resolutions were also passed, pledging the Democrats of Pennsylvania to a war policy of “The Constitution as it is, and the Union as it was” and condemning, among other things, the deportation of Vallandigham from Ohio.

What is Franklin County Doing?

Summary: The editors call for a reorganization of the 126th Regiment to defend the town from future attacks.

Full Text of Article:

Why are not some measures taken to reorganize the 126th regiment, or to get up some other efficient organization, for State defense? Do the people of Franklin county intend to do absolutely nothing for the protection of their property and the defense of their homes? While New York and New Jersey and other portions of our own State are sending men to our relief, shall Franklin county have the disgrace of not furnishing a single full company for the emergency? Young men of Chambersburg, you who talk so bravely and boast so of your loyalty and patriotism, when no danger is nigh, does it not make your cheeks tingle with very shame, when you see regiment after regiment marching through your streets to protect your homes, while you yourselves have not the patriotism or the courage to shoulder your muskets? Let us hear no more of your braggart “rally round the flag, boys!” if you fail to be equal to the demands of the present crisis. Does your valor and patriotism go no farther than singing patriotic songs through the streets at midnight? If so you had better let your heroic virtues remain unsung. It is true, the enemy came upon us so suddenly, nothing could be done before their arrival. But now nothing stands in the way, and although the worst of the crisis may be past, let the young men of the county at least show their willingness to respond to the call, and save their credit.

[No Title]

Summary: The editors urge that a permanent militia be organized in each state. If there had been such a body to throw against Lee, they claim, he could have been easily defeated. The present system of raising troops is inadequate, and something new must be done to prevent further invasions.

The Democratic Nominees

Summary: The editors discuss the two candidates nominated by the State Democratic Convention. Hon. George W. Woodward was not originally a nominee for the position, but his name was put in as the “unusual interest and anxiety” over the nomination produced a series of deadlocked ballots. Woodward was a framer of the current State Constitution, and was the first Democratic nominee for Supreme Court when the office was made elective. His decisions, along with Chief Justice Lowrie, who was renominated for election, are among the most cited from the bench. It is fitting, say the editors, that he be nominated as a man of law to help safeguard civil liberties before they are “irrevocably swept away.”

[No Title]

Summary: The writer argues that attempting to defeat the Confederates who are fighting to save slavery by abolishing slavery makes no sense.

Origin of Article: Louisville Democrat

A Card

Summary: District Attorney W. S. Stenger writes to deny reports in the Lancaster Express that he had tried to shake hands with the Confederate commander Jenkins during the raid, only to be rebuffed by Jenkins. He also goes on to defend Franklin County Democrats of charges of welcoming the Confederates.

The Situation

Summary: The editors report on the movement of troops, both Confederate and Union, through FranklinCounty in the aftermath of Gettysburg. Several cavalry engagements took place in the vicinity of Funkstown and Boonsboro. Union commanders are now stationed in Chambersburg.

Full Text of Article:

As we stated last week, the rebel army commenced its retreat from Gettysburg, on Friday night, the 3rd, inst. by way of Millerstown, Monterey, Waynesboro, Lictersburg and Funkstown Maryland. Their line, during the greater portion of last week, extended from Leitersburg, through Hagerstown to the Potomac beyond Williamsport. Several severe cavalry engagements occurred, in the vicinity of Funkstown and Boonsboro, between Buford and Kilipatrick, on our side, and Stewart’s Jenkin’s rebel forces, on Wednesday and Thursday, in which the rebel forces were driven back with heavy loss. On Saturday last, Sedgewick attacked Longstreet near Hagerstown, and drove him several miles. On Sunday the greater portion of the rebel army was massed near Williamsport, no doubt with the intention of crossing the river at that point. Accounts disagree as to whether there is a pontoon bridge at Williamsport, but the general impression seems to be that one was constructed there last week, previous to which the rebels had been sending over their wounded on one or two old scows.

The army of the Potomac has been lying from Boonsboro towards Harper’s Ferry. A considerable force is now lying near Waynesboro while on Friday, Saturday and Sunday, a large force of Pennsylvania and New York militia passed through the town for the seat of war.

Gen. Couch and staff arrived on Friday, and Gen. Dana on Sunday, Gen. Couch has command of all the forces in this vicinity. The Gen, was seranaded [sic] at the FranklinHotel on Friday evening, and in response made a very brief and appropriate speech.


Summary: The editors note that some of the militia from New York who came to defend FranklinCounty have been behaving badly. Their actions included an assault on Captain Doebler on the grounds that he was a coward, which extended into a general melee.

Full Text of Article:

We are pained to record the fact that some of the militia, who so nobly came to the rescue of Southern Pennsylvania, have been behaving very badly. On Thursday evening last, a disgraceful riot occur[r]ed in the diamond, which for a while threatened to be of a serious character. Some members of one of the New York regiments, getting into a discussion with Captain Doebler, who is still suffering from the wound received at Fredericksburg, called the Captain “a d–d coward.” The Captain replied by striking the fellow over the head with his cain. The “muss” then became general, and several citizens who interfered to protect the Captain in his disabled condition, were roughly handled. Some of them were chased through the streets by the infuriated crowd, armed with pistols, sabres, guns and bayonets, with cries of “shoot them!” “hang them!” “kill them!” The disgraceful scene was brought to a close by the interference of several officers; and although some blood was spliled [sic], we are happy to record the fact that no one was seriously injured. As we have such an institution as a provost marshal here now, we hope measure will be taken to prevent any such outbreaks in the future.

Serenade to General Couch

Summary: General Couch, headquartered in the FranklinHotel, was serenaded in his quarters on Friday by the Chambersburg Brass Band. The General responded with a short speech promising to drive the enemy from the border. He was followed by Col. McReynolds of New York and Major McVey, of Chester County, Pennsylvania. The editors criticize McVey’s speech as partisan, and he apparently imputed the bravery of the community.


Summary: A number of citizens left Chambersburg last week for Hagerstown, thinking that there would be a battle here. The Confederates captured a number of them and sent them to Richmond on the grounds that they were spies. Among the captured were Dr. James Hamilton, L. W. Tritle and George Kauffman (several other names are listed but are obscured by a tear in the paper).


Summary: A doctor in Chambersburg (whose name is obscured by a rip in the paper) has been appointed Assistant Surgeon and assigned to the 20th Regiment State Militia.

Brave Cavalry Dash

Summary: The editors relate the capture of a party of Confederate cavalry in Greencastle by a squad of Federal cavalry.

Dirt and Filth

Summary: The editors report that the streets of the town need a good cleaning after their occupation by the Confederates.

Full Text of Article:

The rebels left us a large inheritance of dirt and filth, on their departure from this place. They had taken possession of the Court House and Franklin Hall, and left dirt to the depth of one or two inches on their floors. They had quartered some of their horses and troops in the streets and on our pavements, and the stench they left behind was almost unbearable. Lime was liberally sprinkled around, and the heavy rains of the last few days have partially restored our wonted state of cleanliness. It would not be a bad idea to have the streets scraped as soon as practicable.

Copperhead Heroism

Summary: The editors report an anecdote that when a Confederate requested of a female resident an axe with which to cut down the liberty pole in the Diamond, she refused, even when the soldier threatened her with his pistol. That woman, note the editors, “is one of the most ‘malignant copperheads’ in town.”

An Act of Vandalism

Summary: During the Confederate occupation, several Confederate soldiers broke into the Columbus Lodge of Odd Fellows, cut to pieces the regalia, and “mutilated everything they could lay their hands upon.”

Card of Thanks

Summary: The members of Company C of the “First Coal” or 4th Regiment Pennsylvania Militia write to thank Mrs. Maria Eyster of Chambersburg for the breakfast she furnished them, free of charge.

Soldier Killed

Summary: During an altercation Thursday evening between two members of the 1st NY Cavalry, one of the combatants was stabbed and died almost immediately. Dr. Richards was called in but found the man dying when he arrived. The other party was arrested by military authorities.


Summary: The 56th Reg’t NY Guards were presented with a “magnificent stand of colors” by several gentlemen connected with the Brooklyn Navy Yard, who came to Chambersburg for expressly that purpose.

The Telegraph

Summary: The telegraph between Chambersburg and Loudon has been reconstructed, under the supervision of W. Blair Gilmore. Communication with Pittsburgh was established last Saturday. Work is also being done on the line between Chambersburg and Carlisle, “so that during the present week we will again be in telegraphic communication with the civilized world.”

Provost Marshal

Summary: General Couch appointed Lieutenant Palmer Provost Marshal for the area. The editors have confidence that “he will do his utmost to preserve peace and order in the community.”


Summary: Wilhelm Appel, son of Barbara and Johannes Appel, died on July 11 near Grindstone Hill, aged 1 year, 7 months and 8 days.

General Orders

Summary: By order from the Dept. of the Susquehanna, all U.S. Government property captured from the Confederates now in the hands of private citizens is to be turned in to the Provost Marshal.

Franklin Repository: September 2, 1863

[No Title]

Summary: Notes the death of a rebel prisoner, Jas. W. Henderson, of consumption in the Waynesboro hospital. Henderson was buried at the M. E. Church by Rev. Dorsey. He claimed loyalty to the Union on the argument that he was forced into rebel service. Origin of Article: The Waynesboro Record

Horse Thieves

Summary: Reports the theft of several horses from Daniel Senger, Jacob Zentmyer, and Jacob Newcomer, all of Waynesboro. The article announces the formation of an association to protect citizens from horse theft.

[No Title]

Summary: Warns against “persons representing themselves as having authority to search for captured horses.”

Mr. Joseph Snouffer

Summary: “Mr. Joseph Snouffer, of Waynesboro, whose arrest we announced last week, has been sent from Gettysburg to FortM’Henry.”

Franklin Repository: September 30, 1863

The Difficulty At Waynesboro

Summary: Includes a letter by B. M. Morrow, Major 1st Battalion 22nd Cavalry, that responds to accusations that he and other soldiers disrupted a Union meeting in Waynesboro previously reported in the Repository. The editors accuse Morrow of being intoxicated.

Full Text of Article:

Headquarters 1st Battalion 22d Pa. Cav.,

Camp near Waynesboro, Sept. 24, 1863.

Editors of the Franklin Repository: Seeing an article in your paper to which I deem it my duty to reply, I hope you will give me space in your columns to make an explanation. On the evening of September 21st, I returned to this place late in the evening from Greencastle, where I had been all day on duty. On my arrival, I found in progress a political meeting, and having at present no voice politically–not having the right of suffrage–I deemed it prudent not to attend. After having my horse cared for, I, accompanied by a gentleman of the town, walked to the further end of town, where we remained some time, and returned to the hotel. I supposed at that time the meeting was almost over. I stepped into the parlor of the hotel and found quite an agreeable company of ladies and gentlemen with whom I was enjoying myself, until a gentleman came in and told me there was a difficulty between some of my men and the citizens, which was the first intimation I had of any soldiers being in the town. I immediately started to the door to enforce my authority as an officer with the soldiers. My reception when arriving at the door was–“He is a traitor,” and was struck by two or three persons. At the same time I ordered every soldier to leave the town, and then asked for the person or persons who struck me. No one appearing willing to say who it was, I then found every thing quiet, when I mounted my horse and rode out of town. Now, these are facts that I am prepared to prove at any moment; and I feel confident that you, as gentlemen, will make the necessary correction. It may be necessary to say, as I have since learned, the cheers for M’Clellan were given at the suggestion of some ladies who were in conversation with the soldiers at the time. I do not think their intention was to interrupt or annoy any one–it was done hastily and without thought.

As for the term of Copperhead applied to me. I care not, as my attachment to the army for more than two years will give the lie to that.

I merely ask to explain, as my character as an officer and a soldier has been brought before the public, and there is nothing a true soldier prizes so high as his character as a soldier and a gentleman.

Hoping you will give this a place in your column, I am gentlemen,

Very respectfully,

Your obedient servant,

B.M. Morrow,

Major 1st Battalion 22d Cavalry.

We give Maj. Morrow the benefit of his statement in our column, and if we had before doubted his complicity in the disturbances at the Waynesboro’ meeting, his own awkward evasions must settle his guilt, either by direct effort or by tolerating disorder on the part of his command.

On one point we are constrained to deny the correctness of Maj. Morow’s statement. He did not behave in the quiet, orderly manner he represents. He was intoxicated, as a multitude of most reputable witnesses have testified over their own signatures, and indulged in the most profane and ungentlemanly language to and of the Union men participating in the meeting; and members of his command, who were intoxicated, openly declared that the Major was on a spree and they would do as they pleased. If he had been sober and meant to do his duty, he would not only have ordered the men of his command out of town, as he alleges he did; but his self-respect as an officer, if not his regard for the peace of the town, would have made him enforce the order. He either did not give such an order, or he permitted his command to defy it insolently, for they did not leave town. On the contrary, they remained until the Union meeting was broken up, all the time creating disorder by yelling for “Jolly,” “Woodward” and “McClellan,” and committed numerous outrageous acts of violence upon citizens. The President of the Union meeting was cut in the neck with a knife, and narrowly escaped a mortal wound, and others were treated with like brutality. And when the Union meeting closed, the soldiers called for Jolly and huzzaed [sic] for Woodward and McClellan, and finally did get one of Maj. Morrow’s command to make a regular copperhead speech. Where was the sensitive Maj. Morrow, who as he says, “prizes nothing so high as his character,” when all these disgraceful scenes were transpiring? Does he falsify about having ordered his men out of town, or was he too drunk, too copperheadish or too cowardly to enforce it? One or the other he must plead guilty to, and either stamps him as utterly unfitted to have a command of any kind. The sooner he is dismissed the service the sooner will the honor and dignity of the profession be vindicated.

Maj. Morrow has a right to be a Democrat and a Woodward or a McClellan man, or anything else he pleases; and he has a right to attend Union or Democratic meetings when such attendance does not conflict with his military duties; but we insist that he has no right to get drunk and let his men loose and get drunk with him, solely for the purpose of interfering with a political meeting of any kind. That he should be a violent copperhead when drunk, is most natural, for a drunken officer is the most brutal and degraded of all men, and if there be a latent spark of the traitor in him, it will crop out as surely as the sparks fly upward. We kindly advise the Major to leave the service at the earliest possible period. He can resign by stating the truth–that his “character as a soldier and a gentleman” is impaired by occasional intoxication and fits of hostility to Union men, and he will doubtless be taken at his word. Once free, he could redeem something of his manhood by going openly into the rebel ranks, or he may play the part of a cowardly copperhead at home, as the latter seems to be “constitutional” according to modern Democratic construction. One thing, however, he cannot and shall not do–that is interrupt Union meetings and the sooner he learns this lesson the better!

A Word To Women

Summary: The editors urge women to influence their men to vote for the Union ticket.

Full Text of Article:

The loyal women in every community have exerted a vast influence in sustaining the war and the government. Let them remember that in no way can they better uphold their country at this hour than by influencing votes for Curtin and against Woodward. They can influence fathers, husbands and sons. To the young women we would say, that if after trying all their persuasive eloquence on their suitors they prove to be incorrigible Copperheads, give them the mitten at once. Don’t waste a smile on a fellow who refuses either by bullet or ballot to help put down the rebellion. Make these bucks face the Union music square, or go under! The sick and wounded soldiers everywhere bless our noble women. They will bestow upon them additional blessings if they aid in electing the soldiers’ truest friend, Andrew G. Curtin.

Fatal Accident

Summary: Mentions the horrible death of Alexander Clugston, a mute, who while working for Jacob Frey was mangled by a threshing machine.

Franklin Repository: November 25, 1863


Summary: T. J. Filbert, a Tailor in Waynesboro, had his place robbed of cloth last Sunday night.

Bank Officers

Summary: Reports that George Jacobs was elected president of the First National Bank of Waynesboro with John Phillips as cashier.

Franklin Repository: December 16, 1863

Recruiting Agent

Summary: Announces the appointment of E. S. Troxel, of Waynesboro, as Recruiting Agent for the 16th Congressional District.

Resources: Valley of the Shadow, Newspaper Archives

Life On The Home Front In 1862

Semi-Weekly Dispatch: January 17, 1862

A Mistake

Summary: Relates a rumor that the remains of two soldiers from Colonel Stumbaugh’s Regiment who died recently were confused. When the friends of Mr. Jacob Royer, who was from Waynesboro’ in FranklinCounty, opened what they expected to be Mr. Royer’s coffin, they were surprised to find the remains of S. B. Davis of WestmorelandCounty instead.

Semi-Weekly Dispatch: February 25, 1862


Summary: Reports that Mr. George W. Walker of Waynesboro’ in FranklinCounty was among the prisoners recently released from Richmond. He had been held since being captured at Martinsburg, Virginia, last July.

Valley Spirit: March 5, 1862

Summary: George W. Walker, Luther B. Kurtz, and Joshua McCamsey, all of Waynesboro, were released by Confederate authorities. The trio had been imprisoned since their capture last July near Martinsburg. They returned to a large crowd of friends, and looked to be in good health.

Valley Spirit: June 11, 1862

The Reign of Terror

Summary: A number of Union cavalrymen, under the command of Horner, supposedly chopped down a flagpole bearing a union flag in Waynesboro two weeks ago. These same troopers assaulted the owner of the flagpole, Michael Hanstine. The editors call for these men to be drummed out of the army.

Full Text of Article:

There was a period in the history of our country which has been very appropriately called the “Reign of Terror.” It was during the Presidency of old John Adams, when Federal troopers were sent through Pennsylvania to chop down the Liberty Poles erected by the Jefferson Democrats.

Pennsylvania is experiencing another “Reign of Terror.” Troopers in the pay of the Federal government–but, to the credit of the President be it spoken, not sent by him on their infamous errand–have been prowling around, cutting down Union Poles and attempting to murder peaceable citizens.

We respectfully call the attention of the War Department to the fact that a portion of Horner’s Cavalry, led by a Lieutenant or other officer of the company, have chopped down a pole erected expressly to bear the Flag of the Union, and which had borne that flag, though it was not flying at the time when the act was committed. These troopers still further disgraced the uniform they wore, by attempting to murder Mr. Michael Hanstine, the owner of the pole, who carried the “Stars and Stripes” in his hands at the time.

These outrages were perpetrated two weeks ago at the town of Waynesboro’, in this county. The civilians who participated in them will in due time be looked after by the civil authorities, and it is to be hoped that the troopers will receive their deserts from the War Department. Recent events have proved conclusively that the government can get all the men it needs for the suppression of the rebellion. It can therefore well afford to drum out of its service those who run away from the enemy and exercise their valor only against inoffensive poles and peaceable citizens.

Valley Spirit, July 2, 1862

Who Are the Partizans

Summary: A reply to the Dispatch’s criticism of an earlier Valley Spirit editorial that claimed that the Democrats were less partisan than the Republicans. The Dispatch disputed this claim and made allusions to the Spirit’s partisanship. In response, the Spirit cites its editorials from April 17, 1861, and April 24, 1861, both of which urge its readers to forgo partisanship and unite to defend the Union.

A Short Reply

Summary: While the editors claim that their policy is never to reply to anonymous criticism, they take issue with a letter printed in the Transcript, which accuses the Valley Spirit of having to be forced to fly the Stars and Stripes at the moment of the rebellion. This allegation is absolutely false, the editors reply, and the writer is casting doubt on the honesty of all the Transcript’s writing by the publication of this obvious falsehood. The issue is connected to an ongoing argument over the cutting down of a flagpole raised by Michael Hanstine, a Democrat.

Full Text of Article:

It is not often that we notice the productions of anonymous scribblers and never when our paper is the target at which they aim their malicious and cowardly shafts. We invariably allow all such assassin like scribblers to simmer down in their own malice, after ridding themselves of their superfluous froth and foam, without being in the least annoyed by their spiteful ebullitions. We depart from our usual rule in this respect to notice briefly a writer in the Transcript. This veracious correspondent in an effort to establish a reputation for truth telling lets off the following:

“But Mr. Editor, it does not surprise me that the Valley Spirit–a sheet notorious for its traitorous proclivities–should attempt to screen rebel sympathisers by a suppression of facts, in order to cast odium upon the brave soldiers of the Union army, for if I have been correctly informed, compulsory measures had to be used before the publishers of that vile sheet would hoist the Stars and Stripes at the commencement of the rebellion.”

We fear the above extract might seriously damage the writers reputation unless he is very careful to keep it in the dark. Should he let himself be known his character must suffer some from such a dubious statement. If the writer intended that this community should believe his balderdash about Mr. Hanstine’s Flag he was most unfortunate in introducing the above item into his article about the Valley Spirit’s Flag. Nobody in this community ever heard of the “compulsory measures” that this writer prates about so knowingly. People are not so easily deceived as this anonymous scribbler imagines and when they detect one deliberate falsehood in an article are apt to look upon the balance of the production in the same light. In this instance they would be taking a very correct view of the writers “facts” for a more dastardly tissue of lies was never penned. His entire statement about Mr. Hanstine’s disloyalty is on a par with his assertion that “compulsory measures had to be used” before the Stars and Stripes adorned our office. We have in this community some very rabid sympathisers with abolition treason, like the writer in the Transcript, who will assert almost anything about a Democrat, but we defy one of them to say that there is a single circumstance upon which to found such a report about the Valley Spirit. It is a lie manufactured out of the whole cloth, and the writer who penned it and the printer who published it knew it to be such. Every man in this community knows, and every honest man will say, that the Valley Spirit was the first paper in this place to run up the Stars and Stripes, and that too without any demand, or under any threat or force-work about it, but from a sense of right and duty. These negro-worshiping [sic] abolition traitors must not think that because they hide the meanest political bigotry under the mask of patriotism other men do the same. They are mistaken and it is time they should know it.

That’s What’s the Matter

Summary: The flag on Mr. Hanstine’s pole in Waynesboro which was cut down read “Democracy and the Union Now and Forever.” The editors claim that it was bound to come down, due to the fanaticism of Republican partisans.

Full Text of Article:

The Star-Spangled Banner that Mr. Hanstine, of Waynesboro, hoisted upon the Union pole at his residence, had inscribed on it “Democracy and the Union Now and Forever.” That is where the treason was smelt–better a thousand Unions perish than that Democracy should endure forever! That pole was bound to come down. No abolitionized Republican could look at it and not become enraged–it was enough to give them fits.

A Fool Answered

Summary: The Transcript’s accusation that Hanstine was not a supporter of the Union is false, because at the time of the rebellion Hanstine was occupied putting up Union poles and trying to “encourage a spirit of patriotism” in Waynesboro. He has a better record, the editors claim, than many Republicans who are trying to make money off the war by “robbing the Government as a contractor by selling them worthless horses.”

Valley Spirit: July 23, 1862

Severely Stabbed

Summary: An unidentified man was stabbed near Waynesboro on Saturday by a deserter; the soldier was arrested and brought into the jail. Earlier, a “highly respectable citizen” from the same area was shot by a deserter.

Valley Spirit: August 6, 1862

Military Matters

Summary: Reports that FranklinCounty is well on its way to forming the five companies required of it under the call for new troops. A second company is being formed in Chambersburg and is close to full; a company at Greencastle under D. W. Rowe, Esq., is full and ready to march, and two companies in Waynesboro are almost ready and will push to be in before August 11. There is talk of enough men interested in enlisting to be able to form a sixth company. The editors praise the willingness of the young men to volunteer.

Valley Spirit: August 13, 1862

Correspondence from CampCurtain

Summary: A correspondent reports from CampCurtain in Harrisburg, writing on August 9th, of the companies from FranklinCounty which have reported for duty there. The writer reports conditions as comfortable, but hot. There are about 12,000 men as he writes and they expect another 3,000 in the evening. He reports that the men are in high spirits, and that people at home should not worry about them. The companies and officers from FranklinCounty thus far at CampCurtain are: Chambersburg Infantry–Capt. John Doebler, 1st Lieut. John Stewart, 2nd Lieut. George W. Welsh, 1st Sgt. John A. Seiders, 2nd Sgt. J. Porter Brown, 3rd Sgt. R. Bard Fisher, 4th Sgt. Thomas H. Durboraw, 5th Sgt. B. F. Diel, 1st Corp. Thomas G. Pilkington, 2nd Corp. David Hoffman, 3rd Corp. Alexander Flack, 4th Corp. Samuel McElvoy, 5th Corp. Dennis Reilly, 6th Corp. Thomas H. McDowell, 7th Corp. D. W. Greenawalt, 8th Corp. Emanuel Forney; Greencastle Company–Captain D. Watson Rowe, 1st Lieut. Andrew K. Davison, 2nd Lieut. John W. P. Reid, 1st Sgt. J. Gilmore Row, Sergeants John H. Logue, William Snider, Simon W. Rupley, Henry Strickler, Corporals William Byers, J. M. D. Detrich, Thomas Dailey, J. K. Hood, S. K. Snively, J. W. Buchanan; Waynesboro’ Sharpshooters–Captain William W. Walker, 1st Lieut. George W. Walker, 2nd Lieut. T. J. Nill, 1st Sgt. Fred. Berkley, 2nd Sgt. Aug. Ripple, 3rd Sgt. John A. White, 4th Sgt. Henry Brenneman, 5th Geo. M. D. Brotherton, Corporals Samuel Leidy, James French, Benjamin Gaff, George Freet, Jacob Newman, Luther Walter, John C. Anderson, A. C. Manahan; Easton Avengers–Captain George Miles, 1st Lieut. S. O. McCurdy, 2nd Lieut. H. C. Fortescue, 1st Sgt. Benjamin Zook (other non-commissioned officers not yet appointed); Mercersburg Company–Capt. R. S. Brownson, 1st Lieut. Samuel Hornbaker, 2nd Lieut. J. S. Trout; 1st Sgt. James P. McCulloch, 2nd Sgt. David Carson, 3rd Sgt. O. A. Anderson, 4th Sgt. Moses Brinckley, 5th Sgt. Thomas D. Metcalfe (Corporals not yet appointed); Franklin Rifles–Captain John H. Reed, 1st Lieut. Jeremiah Cook, 2nd Lieut. J. C. Hulsinger; St. Thomas Company–Captain James G. Elder, 1st Lieut. John Walker, 2nd Lieut. Josiah W. Fletcher; McConnellsburg and Greencastle company combined–Captain J. C. Austin, 1st Lieut. Henry M. Hoke (second lieutenancy vacant). The writer reports that it seems likely all the Franklin companies will be combined in one regiment, and they hope to obtain Major Elder of St. Thomas for the colonelcy. Capt. McKnight’s and Capt. Crouse’s companies are expected in tonight.

Full Text of Article:

Letter from CampCurtin.

Correspondence of the Spirit and Times.

Harrisburg, Aug. 9, 1862.

Messrs Editors. According to promise, I intend to chronicle and transmit to you, weekly, such items of information as will be of general interest, in reference to the brave boys who have recently left Franklin county, in defence of the honor and the flag of the country, under the recent call of the Governor.

The first Company on the ground from our county, and the first full one in CampCurtin, under the three months call, was the “Chambers Infantry.” Escorted to the Depot by hundreds of their fellow citizens, their whole route was a complete ovation–at all the way-stations large crowds has assembled cheers welcomed the volunteers, and the air was filled with fluttering cambric. On their arrival at Harrisburg the Company were marched to the “mustering” office of Cpt. Lane, then dismissed for dinner, and subsequently marched to CampCurtin, a distance of a mile and a half, under a broiling hot sun. This tried the endurance of the delicate young “infants” considerably for the first day’s experience in soldiering. One of the Company, from whom the perspiration was rolling profusely, drolly remarked: “If this continues much longer I am afraid I’ll meet a watery grave.” As the remark was considered unpardonable in a veteran, he was politely requested, by a companion in arms, to “dry up,” which, however, he positively refused to do until he reached the shade. After reaching CampCurtin, the Company underwent a medical examination, when, with one exception, all were passed. The examining surgeon is Dr. Miller, of the vicinity of Greencastle. He is a very clever gentleman, and has the reputation of being a thorough master of his profession. After the examination, we drew our camp equipage and rations, and proceeded to pitch our tents, and we all congratulated ourselves on doing very well for the first attempt. We have the Sibley tent, roomy, high and round, quite an improvement on the old fashioned tent, and by placing board floors in them, have rendered them as comfortable and healthy as the driest house.

The Companies thus far in camp from Franklin county, with their commissioned and non-commissioned officers, as far as they have yet been chosen, are as follows:

Chambersburg Infantry–Captain, John Doebler; 1st Lieut., John Steuart; 2nd Lieut. George W. Welsh; 1st Serg’t John A. Seiders; 2nd Serg’t, J. Porter Brown; 3rd Serg’t, R. Bard Fisher; 4th Serg’t, Thomas H. Durboraw; 5th Serg’t, B.F. Diel; 1st Corp., Thos. G. Pilkington; 2nd. David Hoffman; 3rd, Alexander Flack; 4th, Sam’l M’Ilvoy; 5th, Dennis Reilly; 6th, Thomas H. McDowell; 7th, D.W. Greenawalt; 8th, Emanuel Forney.

Greencastle Company–Captain, D. Watson Rowe; First Lieut., Andrew K. Davison; Second Lieut., John W.P. Reid; 1st Serg’t J. Gilmore Rowe; Sergeants, John H. Logue, William Snider, Simon W. Rupley, Henry Strickler; Corporals, William Byers, J.M.D. Detrich, Thomas Dailey, J.K. Hood, S.K. Snively, J.W. Buchanan.

Waynesboro Sharpshooters–Captain William W. Walker; 1st Lieut. George W. Walker; Second Lieut., T.J. Nill; 1st Serg’t, Fred. Berkley; 2nd Serg’t. Aug. Ripple; 3rd John A. White; 4th, Henry Brenneman; 5th Geo. M.D. Brotherton; Corporals, Samuel Leidy, James French, Benjamin Gaff, George Freet, Jacob Newman, Luther Walter, John C. Anderson, A.C. Manahan.

“Easton Avengers.”–Captain, George Miles; First Lieut., S.O. McCurdy; Second Lieut. H.C. Fortescue; 1st Serg’t, Benjamin Zook–other non-commissioned officers not yet appointed.

Mercersburg Company–Capt. R.S. Brownson; First Lieut. Samuel Hornbaker; Second Lieut. J.S. Trout; 1st Serg’t, James P. Mcculloch; 2nd Serg’t, David Carson; 3rd Serg’t, O.A. Anderson; 4th Serg’t, Moses Brinckley; 5th Serg’t, Thomas D. Metcalfe. Corporals not yet appointed.

Franklin Rifles–Captain, John H. Reed; 1st Lieut., Jeremiah Cook; 2nd Lieut., J.C. Hullinger.

St. Thomas Company–Captain, James G. El-Elder [sic]; 1st Lieut., John Walker; 2nd Lieut., Josiah W. Fletcher. A McConnellsburg and Greencastle Company combined–Captain J.C. Austin; 1st Lieut., Henry M. Hoke; Second Lieutenancy vacant.

There has been no movement yet, towards regimental organizations. It was at first suggested and hoped that we should secure Capt. David McKibben of the regular army, as our Colonel; but I now understand that the Government will not consent to the arrangement; after Capt. McKibben. I think Major Elder of St. Thomas is the unanimous choice of the regiment for the colonelcy. There seems now to be no doubt but that all Franklin county companies will be thrown into one regiment. We already have eight companies here, and Capt. McKnight’s and Capt. Crouse’s companies are expected to-morrow. If this arrangement is consummated, it will make the associations of the Camp much more pleasant for us all.

Troops are literally pouring into Camp. We now number about twelve thousand, and by Sunday evening expect to have fifteen thousand here; which with the men already at Philadelphia, Lancaster and Pittsburgh will make at least twenty-five thousand men, that Pennsylvania will be able to furnish for nine months, under the first call. If all portions of the State had responded as nobly as did Franklin county, we would have had twice this number by this time.

As far as I have learned, all are delighted with camp life. The weather has been fine, though excessively warm during the day–the nights however, are moonlight, cool and pleasant. The kind friends at home should not picture to themselves dreary scenes of the camp, and imagine that their “brave soldier boys” are in the least low-spirited or discontented, for a more jolly set were never seen. Wit and pleasantry rule the hour, and everything goes as “merry as a marriage bell.” Speaking of marriage, some of our young gentlemen, concluding to take time by the forelock, have already been united in the “holy bonds.” Doubtless you have already heard of this at home. They have the hearty congratulations of all their friends.

Of course, we have not the remotest idea when we will leave this. It may be weeks hence. But the camp ground is now so filled with tents that there is no drill ground at all, and some of us may soon be “shipped” to make room for the others.

Letters, for the present, should be directed to the care of the captains of the several companies, CampCurtin, Harrisburg.

Camp is now under command of Capt. Tarbutten. Lieut. Welsh of our Company is acting as his adjutant.

There have been so few incidents of interest or importance, that I fear this letter will not prove as interesting as I had hoped. Good bye until next week.

Valley Spirit: August 27, 1862

Mr. Wm. G. Reed

Summary: William G. Read, Deputy Marshall for FranklinCounty, has appointed his deputies, who have received their enrollment blanks. Enrollment must be completed by September 3rd, and all persons are required to supply to the officer “all facilities and information, that may be necessary for a thorough discharge of his duty.” The deputies for each township are as follows: Antrim–Alex. Schaffert, Augustus Sheiry, Henry Baltzley; Chambersburg–P. W. Seibert; Fannet — James Ferguson, Peter Shearer; Guilford–Francis Zarman, George H. Cook; Green–John Ditzler; Hamilton–Isaac Miller; Letterkenny–William H. Britton; Lurgan–John M. Saltzman; Metal–William Fleming; Montgomery–Jacob Potter (Mercersburg); J. Watson Craig and Hugh B. Craig (Township); Peters–Jacob Haulman; Quincy–David Wertz, Hiram E. Wertz; St. Thomas–Joseph Strock, J. R. Tankersly; Southhampton–David J. Bard; Washington–John Herr (Waynesboro), Nicholas Bonebrake (Township); Warren–John H. Thomas.

Valley Spirit: September 10, 1862


Summary: Daniel K. Wunderlich, Esq., the commissioner to superintend the drafting of militia-men for this county, has announced that he will meet to hear cases for exemptions from September 9th through 17th at the following locations: the Court House in Chambersburg (9th, 10th, 11th); the house of Mrs. Hollar in Greencastle (12th); public house of L. B. Kurtz in Waynesboro (13th); public house of Col. J. H. Murphy in Mercersburg (15th); public house of W. S. Bard in Orrstown (16th); and in the public house of Benjamin Crouse in Dry Run on the 17th. Dr. A. H. Senseny is the medical examiner.

Valley Spirit October 22, 1862

The Draft–The Result–Waynesboro

Summary: List of men drafted from Waynesboro.

(Names in announcement: Joshua Hollenberger, Lewis H. Morrison, Josiah Beckner, Henry Stoner, William F. Barnets, Jacob Frick, Emory D. Houser, Jacob H. Fahrner, William A. Rippy, Samuel M. Hoeflich, William Reed, David Reeseman, William B. Crouse, Elias Troxel, Frederick Tritle, George Keegy, Charles A. Binkly, M. L. Fisher, Henry A. Fisher, Jacob Lesher, John H. Adams, George B. Hawker, Hiram Henneberger, David Logan)

Valley Spirit, October 29, 1862


Summary: Cyrus Knepper of QuincyTownship was badly hurt when he was thrown from the top level of an omnibus as he rode it from Greencastle to Waynesboro. Knepper fell when the omnibus crossed a railroad track, and the wheels passed over his head.

Valley Spirit November 26, 1862


Summary: Waynesboro, list of substitutes and draftees: James Ageu for Lewis H. Morrison; John D. Nead for Henry Stover; Peter McFerren for Frederick Tritle; John Bonner for Jacob H. Forney; Alex D. Morganthall for Charles A. Binkley.

Valley Spirit: December 17, 1862

Important Notice

Summary: A list of drafted men who never reported to their camp of rendezvous. They have the liberty of reporting to the camp voluntarily in the next few days, or armed force will be use to bring them in and they will be tried as deserters. By township, they are: Antrim–George Arris, Milton J. Brunner, John Burns, Henry Bemesderfer, Jeremiah Keefer, Henry Cordel, Thomas Lammensch?, John Leckrone, Samuel H. Moore, Charles H. Nowell, Daniel Provinger, Benjamin F. Snyder, Samuel Stumbaugh, John Wingert. Chambersburg–L. R. Wilson. Concord District–Nicholas Arnold, George Burkhart, Peter Hockenberry, John Hockenberry (of J), Jacob Hockenberry, John Linn (farmer), Robert McVitty, Solomon Piper, Charles Timmons. Guilford–George Baker, David Bitner, Henry A. Cook, William Danfelt, Henry Etter, Daniel Burkholder, Samuel Nagle, Daniel Rock (laborer), Adam Stang, George Speck, Noab Sier, Jacob Trace, Thomas West. Green–Jeremiah Brown, Thomas Dumer, Augustus Degroff, William Duke, Samuel Green, Frederick Hoffman, William Myers, Samuel H. Myers, Joseph Rinehart, John Spoonhour, Alex Thomas, Adam B. Wingert. Hamilton–John Dietrich, Samuel Freaner, Amos Hommon, George Zell, Henry Zook. Letterkenny–Curtis L. McNeal, David Mahoney. Lurgan–Richard Flickinger, William A. Long, Emanuel Miller, John Pisle (at Washington). Montgomery–B. F. Conrad, Michael Deck, James Drury, William Drury, George Dulabaum, Samuel Garns, David Hege, Samuel Long, W. H. Lynch, J. C. Robison, George W. Raby, John Shank, D. S. Shaler, John F. Shrader, James F. Tosten. Peters–David Gearhart, David Hoover. Quincy–Robert Barnes, E. H. Barnes, Jonathan Bear, Lewis Carbaugh, James Hope, Reuben Hess, Thomas Kurtz, Joseph Knepper, Patrick Nugen, Thomas Patterson, Levi Row, John R. Rav, James Reed, William Stoops, Jacob Wiles, Jr. Metal–Asa Harris, John Pogue, William Schware. Southampton–Thomas J. Butts, Levi Killinger, Joseph Strawbridge, Jr., David Reber, Daniel Unger. St. Thomas–Philip Byers, Henry Foutz, Abel Hyssong, George Miller, Solomon Miller. Washington–Christian Bear, Samuel Brown, John Gall, Joseph Keefer, John McFerren, James McSherry, Isaac Shockey, John Steffy, John Sheller, George Wassam, John Welsh. Waynesboro–Hiram Henneberger, David Logan, David Reesman. Warren–Michael Dillan, William Pine, Asbury Pine, George Yeakel.

Resources: Valley of the Shadow, Newspaper Archives

Life On The Home Front In 1861

Semi-Weekly Dispatch: August 9, 1861

Summary: Remarks that “for some days past,” Chambersburg has suffered from “intense hot weather.” Comments that the effect of this weather has been “enervating and depressing” upon local residents and expresses the hope that the corn will not suffer for the heat and lack of rain.

Summary: Reports that Mr. J. Allison Eyster of Chambersburg and several gentlemen from Waynesboro continue to be held prisoner, now at Richmond.

Our townsman, Mr. J. Allison Eyster, and the several gentlemen from Waynesboro’, whom we announced sometime ago had been seized while in Virginia and thrown into the Winchester prison–since removed to Richmond–as prisoners of war, are still detained. Efforts by influential parties, we understand, are being made to obtain their release, but with what prospect of success we are unable to say. As these gentlemen are but simple civilians, disconnected with the operations of our army altogether, what object is to be achieved in their detention, we are at a loss to know.–We would be pleased to hear of their liberation; but if this is peremptorily denied, then we trust the most determined and energetic measures of retaliation will be adopted by our people everywhere. This is a game two can play at, and the sooner it is commenced, the better.

Semi-Weekly Dispatch: August 20, 1861

Summary: Reports that Captain John Jeffries of Chambersburg has grown nine or ten hills of “Canada corn” in his garden. This breed of corn produces between three and five stalks per hill and three to six ears on each stalk.

J. Allison Eyster, Esq., Released

(Column 1)

Summary: Reports that J. Allison Eyster was released from prison in Richmond, where he was being held by the rebels under suspicion of being a spy, and returned home the previous Saturday.

Semi-Weekly Dispatch: October 01, 1861

Full Text of Article:

We have the gratification to announce, that our respected townsmen, J. A. Eyster, Esq., whose arrest by the rebels we announced at the time it occurred, and who has been held a prisoner at Richmond, Va., ever since, during the early part of last week was released, and arrived at home on Saturday last.

While in Richmond he was imprisoned in a large Tobacco Warehouse for some five weeks, with Messrs Kurtz, Walker, McCumsey and Brotherton, of Waynesboro’, whose capture we also announced. He was then removed to the CountyPrison, where he was detained up until the hour of his release.

Mr. E. looks about as natural as ever, but somewhat thinner in flesh. He says he was treated kindly, as are all the prisoners, as far as his knowledge goes, that are detained at Richmond, of whom it is supposed, there must be some 2500. Many of them are now being transferred to points farther South.

Mr. Eyster was arrested and detained as a spy, and would have been discharged long ago could he have obtained a hearing before the proper authorities. It was a mere accident that he finally did succeed in having his case brought up, and no evidence being adduced against him, he was discharged on the spot. He was furnished a pass to Norfolk, from whence, under a flag of truce, with a number of other discharged prisoners, he was sent to Fortress Monroe. From there he embarked for Baltimore, and is now at home, where he has received the congratulations of hundreds of his fellow-citizens, at his fortunate escape from the philistines.

The other parties we have named above, were not so fortunate as Mr. Eyster. It appears they are charged with furnishing the federal troops with supplies while on the “sacred soil” of Virginia, and they, doubtless, will be obtained until the close of the troubles.

Resources: Valley of the Shadow, Newspaper Archives

Henrietta (Zeilinger) Fitz

560027_444380475650488_1872555563_nHenrietta Zeilinger was born in July of 1846. Her nickname was Hetty. She lived on a small farmstead, near the Benchoff Farm along Furnace Road.

At the age of 17, during the Battle of Monterey Pass, she warned the Union cavalry about the Confederate artillery position on top of South Mountain. As the Battle of Monterey Pass was being fought along the Emmitsburg and Waynesboro Turnpike, she guided a portion of the 1st Michigan Cavalry over to Fairfield Gap through the mountainous terrain past her farm. This action was to block the Confederate wagon trains from entering Monterey Pass via Fairfield. The Union cavalry was pushed back during this fierce fight. Weeks after the battle, several of the Michigan soldiers took time to write her and thank her for guiding them.

After the Civil War, she married Jacob Fitz, who has a very sketchy past. She past away on October 20, 1932 at Blue Ridge Summit, PA.

David Miller Jr’s Account of the Battle of Monterey Pass

Clermont, Penn., November 23, 1886.
Prof. J. Fraise Richard,

Dear Sir — In answer to your letter concerning the capture of Lee s wagon train by Gen. Kilpatrick on the night of July 4, and morning of the 5th, 1863, I beg to say I remember it very distinctly.

My father rented Monterey Springs from Mr. Samuel Buhrman and kept the house from April, 1861, to April, 1866. Monterey being on the turnpike, at the top of South Mountain, is the main crossing in the southeastern part of Franklin County, Penn., and was resorted to in times of rebel invasions by not only many persons of Washington and Antrim Townships of this county, but by many from Washington County, Maryland, and the Valley of Virginia. At this place, in times of danger, pickets were always placed from the Monterey House to the western side of the mountain to give notice if the rebels were approaching.

At the time of the battle of Gettysburg a large number of people were here anxiously awaiting news from the field of carnage, which could be seen from the adjacent hills. On the afternoon of July 4, a company of rebel cavalry came to Monterey from the tollgate, about half a mile on the western side, where the old Furnace road intersects the turnpike, over which roads the train was passing. After staying an hour or longer they left, and soon a rebel battery came from the same direction and placed a cannon on the turnpike between the house and barn.

Another party was stationed farther east where the Clermont house now is and the pike commences to descend the mountain. They kept all the persons at the Monterev as prisoners, placing a guard over them at the house. They gave my nephew, Willie Waddell, and myself privilege to go wherever we wished, to look after things, but required us to report every fifteen minutes to Sergt. Grabill, who was stationed at the front door of the house. About dusk I saw a great deal of commotion among them and asked some of the soldiers what was going on. “Oh  nothing! Just you report to Sergt. Grabill,” was the reply. I came to the house and asked Willie Waddell whether he knew what was going on. ” Yes, ” said he, ” I just came down from the observatory on the lop of the house and could hear the Union troops coming up the mountain.”

Very soon the cannonadins commenced, but did not last long. The rebels hitched
horses to their cannon and went toward the tollgate on a run, Sergt. Grabill not waiting for any one to report to him. One of the first men I met after the arrival of the Union troops was Gen. Custer, who. after questioning me, called Gen. Kilpatrick standing near. Gen. Kilpatrick asked me the distance to the foot of the mountain on the western side and whether troops could march on both sides of the turnpike. I told him they could as far as the tollgate. He immediately ordered a cannon to be placed in front of the Monterey house to throw shells after the retreating rebels. At the same time he ordered a regiment to march after them. The officer in command said he could not go “while they were throwing shell in the rear of his men. Kilpatrick said, “Yes you can,” and at the same directed the officer in charge of the cannon to throw his shells high so that there would be no danger to the Union troops. The rebels returned the fire for a time from the neighborhood of the tollgate, but when the Union troops approached they

Kilpatrick inquired of me whether there was any other road by which he could get to the foot of the mountain. I informed him of the Mount Zion road to Smithsburg and Leitersburg, the distance to the former place being eight miles, to the latter eleven. He then asked me whether I knew of any one acquainted with the road who would go as a guide. I had seen Mr. C. H. Buhrman with the soldiers when they came to Monterey. I said, “Mr. Buhrman is the man for you.” Mr. Buhrman being called up. Gen. Kilpatrick asked him whether he knew the Mount Zion road to Smithsburg and Leitersburg, and whether he could find it such a dark night; if so, whether he would go as a guide for a regiment. Mr. Buhrman said he knew the road well, could find it no matter how dark the night, and would go as a guide.

Calling Col. Preston, Gen. Kilpatrick informed him that Mr. Buhrman would act as
his guide. Soon the tramping of horses began through mud and rain in one of the darkest nights I ever knew. As soon as Col. Preston had started. Gen. Kilpatrick ordered a lieutenant, with James McCulloh as guide, to go past the Benchoff farm to the old Furnace road to cut off that portion of the train between the Gum Spring and the turnpike, which added one and a half miles more to the part already attacked, and from which they brought from seventy-five to one hundred prisoners to Monterey. The cannonading continued for several hours as our troops were descending the western side of the mountain. By daylight on Sunday morning, July 5. Gen. Kilpatrick, with all his troops and prisoners except a few who were too badly wounded to be moved, had left Monterey. One of these wounded
died soon after.

I never knew any one to direct movements so rapidly as Gen. Kilpatrick did that
night, nor men so eager to follow as were the Union soldiers. There never was a greater victory under such adverse circumstances with the loss of so small a number of men.

Respectfully yours, David Miller.