Report of General Joseph Knipe At Waynesboro, Encamped at Washington Township


Union General Joseph Knipe



The brigadier-general commanding calls the attention of the command to the certainty of an early with the enemy, and it is strictly enjoined upon brigade, regimental, and company commanders to attend at once to the condition of the arms and ammunition of the men under them. No time is to be lost in putting the arms in perfect order, and seeing that the boxes are filled with cartridges. The rations on hand must be cooked and out in haversacks, so that no detention will ensue when the order to march is given, and also that the men may not suffer for food when it may be impossible for the supply trains to reach them. By order of Brig. General W. F. Smith, commanding First Division:

ALEXANDER FARNHAM, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

Promulgated by order of Brigadier-General Knipe:

ROBERT MUNCH, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General .

Also the following.

Preparations were immediately made to carry out the above orders. Rations were procured and cooked under the directions of Quartermaster John C. Mullett, and orders were received to form in line at 3 p. m. of the 11th instant. Here, at this time, we joined you brigade for the first time, having been separated, as before mentioned, during our stay at Waynesborough, and marched down the hill on to the road; halted for the other regiments in our brigade to come into line, where we had to wait one full hour before they came into line, a delay, I am happy to say, which the gallant Sixty-eight regiment never caused any officer or brigade while in the service, being always prompt . Preparations being completed, orders were given,

“Battalion, right face; forward march!” and we were off for “Dixie, ” our march being on the direct road to Hagerstown from Waynesborough . Outmarch was with quick step for the first 4 miles. When we arrived at the Little Antietam – a river, from the heavy rains which had fallen, had become much swollen, and was very rough and rapid, the bridge over which had been destroyed by Lee’s army, on their retreat after the Gettysburg fight, only three days before, which we had to ford -we had now advanced some 2 miles across the line into Maryland, After fording and getting everything across, our march was slow and cautious, being in close proximity with the rebel pickets, and every moment expecting an engagement . Marching slowly, the night very dark, mud deep, we came to a halt in an open field about 10 o’clock, where the division bivouacked for the remainder of the night having sent out pickets and taken every precaution against a surprise . Before arriving where we bivouacked, my sickness became so severe that I was obliged to turn over my command to Lieutenant-Colonel Swift, and stopped, accompanied by Surgeon-


Philip S. Crooke in Washington Township, 1863


Brigadier General Philip S. Crooke

OFFICIAL RECORDS: Series 1, vol 27, Part 2 (Gettysburg Campaign) page 242-247
HARRISBURG, July 4, 1863.

An order was given to take rations last night. Do troops wasn’t me to tell them to breathe? Always have rations in your haversacks. You want no buggy; you are going in the mountains for a few days. Beef-cattle go forward. Now is the time to aid your country. Let trifles go; march.

Major-General. On the receipt of this paper -as the only information seemed that we were bound ” for the mountains “- I started on the turnpike leading to the mountains south of Carlisle, all the officers, as well as men, on foot, without anything except they carried it ; not a wagon or pack-horse, or any knowledge of route or supplies,, present or future . The result proved the dispatch in one respect; we wanted “no buggy “- the roads in places were impassable for one. The dispatch was in fault as to the beef-cattle; they did not “go forward” fast enough to overtake us. We were left to our own resources in a country which had been overrun and exhausted by the rebel forces. About 2 miles south of Carlisle, we were overtaken by a heavy rainstorm, and we rested for three hours in a large barn and farm-house. Here we met a few stragglers from the battle of Gettysburg -paroled Union soldiers and rebel deserters – and from them heard of the great battle which was going on when they left. We then knew our route, and started anxiously. We met 3 of the “Brooklyn Fourteenth” who had been taken prisoners and paroled in the battle. Their unexpected recounted with their Brooklyn friends in the middle of Pennsylvania was startling and strange. We left them cheered and cheering. A little before sundown we arrived at Paperville, a village at the gorge of the mountains, with a steam of water which had over- flowed our road. Here we had to ford about half a mile, in places waist -deep; the drummer boys and drums where carried. We halted at Holly Springs after dark; the brigade bivouacked.

Next day a muddy, hard, hungry march to laurel Furnace. July 5. – Came up with General John Ewen’s brigade (Fourth New York State National Guard), who took command. Here the horses of myself and staff reached us. We were marched up a mountain road to a pass looking down upon Gettysburg, about 12 miles off. Bivouacked there; obtained some bread from the inhabitants, who were very kind and considerate. July 6. – Some wagons met us with supplies; obtained one day’s rations; marched on toward the south; bivouacked in the woods next morning.

July 7. – Arrived at Newman’s Gap., on the turnpike from Gettysburg to Chambersburg; met General W. F. Smith, U. S. Army, Commanding Army of the Susquehanna; saw traces of the battle of Gettysburg in broken caissons, &c.; marched forward on the track of Lee’s army; turned of the turnpike to the south; bivouacked at Funkstown; terrible rain-storm all night and until 10 a. m.

July 8. – But little to eat ; marched on to Waynesborough, near to Maryland line, a considerable village, where we found the Sixth Army of Corps of the Potomac bivouacked on the hills south of the village .

July 9, 10, 11. – Pleasant weather, and rations just before sundown orders to march; marched; forded Antietam Creek, the timber of the brigade, burned by the rebels, yet smoking; 11 p. m. bivouacked at Leitersburg, in a clover-field.

July 12. – Marched to Cavetown; tremendous storm of rain, thunder and daylight; bivouacked there .

July 13. – Marched through Smoketown and Mount Pleasant to Boonsborough, Md. There we met several members of the Fifth Brigade, now in the United States service; Colonel Brewster, of the Excelsior Brigade, Captain E. D. Taft, commanding battery, both of whom distinguished themselves at Gettysburg. Here we were informed that Lee’s army had escaped over the Potomac, and we were ordered home; marched to Frederick, Md. The march was very fatiguing, and Christian Hemming, a private of the Twenty-eight, did form exhaustion.

July 15. – Arrived at Frederick, and bivouacked south of the city remained there until July 17; passed by railroad to Baltimore.

July 18. – Arrived at Philadelphia.

July 19. – Arrived at New York. We were met on the wharf with orders from the Commander-in-Chief to report for duty in Brooklyn, and remained on duty until September 6, in the protection of the peace and property of Kings County, in all of which the whole of my command acquitted themselves as good soldiers and citizens, and did good service. The Seventieth Regiment, remaining at home, were on duty guarding the State arsenal, at Brooklyn, and assisting in preserving the peace during July, until September 6, faithfully and zealously, and also are entitled to the same credit . Their colonel, William J. Cropsey, is an energetic and reliable officer, and the officers and men are of almost respectable class of citizens. It is a valuable corps for home service. The Thirteenth and Twenty-eight Regiments had been in the United States service, in 1861; the Thirteenth also, in 1862. Many hundreds of their members had joined the United States volunteer service, and their uniforms were worn out in the service. Those regiments have done hard and faithful service, and are now reforming, with the prospect of much efficiency. All of which is respectfully submitted.


Brigadier-General, Fifth Brigade .

Union General Jesse Smith in Washington Township – 1863


Jesse Smith, Findagrave website

No. 413. Report of Brig. General Jesse C. Smith, commanding, Eleventh Brigade, New York State National Guard, of operations June 16-July 19.

HDQRS. 11th Brig., NEW YORK STATE NATIONAL GUARD, Brooklyn, December 28, 1863.

COLONEL: On the morning of the 16th of June last, at about 9 o’clock, I received a telegraphic order from Governor Seymour, dates June 15, ordering all the regiments in my command to be ready to go to Philadelphia at once on short service. On the 18th, the Twenty-thirds Regiment, Colonel William Everdell, jr., 518 strong ; on the 19th the Fifty-sixth Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel J. Q. Adams, 409 strong, and on the 22d, the Fifty-second regiment, Colonel M. W. Cole, with 325 men, left for Harrisburg, Pa. The promptness, with which regiments responded to the call of the Commander-in-Chief was highly commendable.

On the 22nd of June, I received an order from Major-General [Harmanus B.] Duryea, commanding that division, that the Twenty-third, Forty-seventh, Fifty-second and Fifty-sixth regiments and such other regiments of the Second Division as should thereafter be designed for that purpose, were constituted a brigade under my command during the term of duty, in obedience to the orders of the Commander-in-Chief. On the afternoon, of the 24th of June, I departed for Harrisburg, Pa., with Major Benjamin Haskell, assistant adjutant-general (chief of staff); Captain John Berry, aide-de-camp; Captain Lebbeus Chapman, jr., brigade quartermaster ; Captain Zachariah Voorhies, assistant commissary of subsistence, on my staff .

On the morning of the 25th of June, I reported to Major-General Couch, at Harrisburg, and afterward, on the same morning crossed the Susquehanna River, and reported to Brigadier-General Hall, then in command of Fort Washington, a newly erected fort of earthworks on the high ground directly opposite Harrisburg. Three of my regiments, the Twenty-third, Fifty-second, and the Fifty-sixth, were then located in and around the fort, having arrived there at different times from the 19th to the 23rd of June. The Forty-seventh Regiment was ordered to Washington, D. C., and did duty in Virginia. On my arrival to take charge of the three regiments of my command, a great state of excitement existed at Harrisburg and through the Cumberland Valley, in consequence of the near approach of General Lee’s army, and of the daily reports that he was marching on Harrisburg, by way of Carlisle, with a large force. The Eight and Seventy-first Regiment New York State National Guard, and one regiment of Pennsylvania militia, having been sent forward, under command of General Knipe, by the Cumberland Vallet Railroad to Shippensburg, and having fallen back from point to point as they were driven in by the rebels, presented the appearance of an advance guard of a large force, delayed the rebels a week or more in their advance, and enabled many other regiments to arrive at Harrisburg, and to throw up to quite formidable earthworks, to erect barricades across the roads through the mountain gaps, and to dig rifle-pits and make other defensive preparations . My hospital surgeon, Major E. Maloe, joined me here, and his services were very valuable at the hospital established near the fort. The entire force was constantly employed night and day, as the regiments arrived, in erecting these earthworks, barricades, &c., and in picket duty, and were saved from an attack from Lee’s army by the delay in its advance, occasioned by the militia force and demonstration, until the morning of the 30th of June. After having driven in our outer line of pickets, the rebels fell back under orders, as appears by General Lee’s report, to meet the Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg.

On the 1st of July, the Twenty-second and Thirty-seventh New York State National Guard, with two regiments of Pennsylvania militia, and a battery of citizens artillery from Philadelphia entered Carlisle, 18 miles from Harrisburg, down the Cumberland Valley, and were that night shelled by Stuart’s cavalry, who burned the Carlisle barracks and other buildings. The militia stood their ground nobly, and the artillery is said to have done good service in the defense of the place. On the afternoon of the 1st of July, my three regiments, with the Eight, Eleventh, and Seventy-first Regiments New York State National Guard, and Miller’s light battery, attacked temporarily to the Eight Regiment National Guard, marched out from the fort opposite Harrisburg on the road toward Carlisle, the whole under the command of General Knipe, and went into camp, or rather into a field 7 miles from the fort, at about 9 o’clock in the evening. As we went into quartermaster, heavy cannonading was heard in the direction of Carlisle, and the light of the burning barracks was distinctly visible on the sky. This was as anxious night to our command, as the supposition was that Ewell’s corps of Lee’s army had returned to Carlisle, and attacked our militia there in force, and would capture them, and be down upon us the next morning. We had no intimation that on that day there had been a battle of Gettysburg.

At 2 o; clock the next morning, a staff officer came in from General Couch, with orders to get the baggage train back on the road to Harrisburg, and to have the men in readiness to march at a moment’s notice. At a 3 a. m. another officer came from General Couch, with peremptory orders to march back at once to the fort. Three retreat was then commenced, and continued for about 3 miles. We were then halted in the road, and remained there until near sundown, when we bivouacked on the bank of a beautiful stream for the night, and the next day (July 3) marched to Carlisle, about 15miles. The weather was very warm, the men marched with their knapsacks packed, their blankets rolled, their haversacks supplied with two days ‘ ration, and their cartridge-boxes with 40 rounds. The suffered greatly from this first march, and were compelled to leave their knapsacks and many other things that were afterward much needed.

The next morning (July 4), our column, having been united to the brigades of General Ewen and Crooke, and a bridge of Pennsylvania militia, under command of Colonel Brisbane, with Landis’ battery of artillery from Philadelphia, which was now attached to our division, in command of General Knipe -in all about fifteenth regiments of infantry, one battery, and one light battery of artillery -moved out on the Mount holly road, south from Carlisle, and away from all railroad communication. About 12 o’clock it commenced to rain, and continued through the afternoon and night. The road led through the South Mountain, and was very narrow and muddy. The men marched through mud and water, oftentimes kneedeep. The Twenty-third Regiment, having had some of its men nearly drowned while fording a stream, had to stop for the night. The men of the other regiments struggled and straggled through, but when we halted for the night, at 9 o’clock, scarcely a “corporal’s guard” was present.

The next morning (the 5t of July), without anything to eat, and without waiting for the command to come up, we were marched over the mountains about 5 miles, and encamped; here we gathered some bread and other eatables from the neighborhood.

The next day (the 6th of July) was another rainy day, and night founds us on the road from Gettysburg to Chambersburg, on which the day before the rebels had retreated, without rations, the men sleeping on the west ground in an orchard; General Knipe and myself and our staffs without anything to eat excepting a little prepared coffee and a peace of bread. Captain Cipperly, additional aide-de-camp, at this time reported to me for duty.

The following night, the men having encamped in a piece of wood, found themselves immersed in water in the morning. Our supplies, which were to have come forward, had gone by mistake to Gettysburg. My quartermaster was directed to gather up all loose horses and wagons, and was then sent to Shippensburg from supplies. These did not reach us until after we had arrived at Waynesborough, on the 10th of July. We here (Waynesborough) connected with the Army of the Potomac, and had two or three days of rest. From this place, on the 12th and 13th, we marched to within 1 or 2 miles of Boonsborough, Md. Here w encamped again in the rain, and with scant rations. The next day we advanced on the National road toward Hagerstown, about 2 miles, and as we marched we heard the firing on the Potomac, as Kilpatrick engaged the rebels while crossing. A general engagement was expected, and our force stood in line of battle on the field where Kilpatrick had fought on the Friday proceeding, in readiness, if called upon as a reserve force to the Army of the Potomac, then in front of us.

In the afternoon, we were informed that General Lee had recrossed the Potomac River with his whole army. The next morning we were dismissed by General W. F. Smith, and my command, including the Eight and Seventy-first Regiments with Generals Ewen’s and Crooke’s, were placed in command of General Ewen, and directed to march to Frederick, where we would embark for home.

The march to Frederick, on the 15 of the July, was 18 miles over the South Mountain, and without rations. The men, supposing that Frederick was the termination of their day’s march, came in to that town in good order ; but when, after dark, the command was ordered by the commanding officer to march to the railroad junction, 3 or 4 miles farther, they became disheartened, and, having no rations served them since the day before, they suffered much from hunger and fatigue, and as they went into camp at 9 o’clock at night, one man of the Twenty-eight Regiment actually died from exhaustion – an unnecessary hardship, because the troops were on the homeward march, and did not obtain transportation for the next twenty-four hours . The following night the troops were embarked, in a most severe rain-storm, on board of cars for Baltimore, Md., some of the men in open cars, exposed to the storm. The entire next day was spent in reaching Baltimore, and the whole of the night of the 17th and of the of the 18th were spent in getting to Harrisburg, and many of the men in open cars, exposed to the rain an night air.

On Sunday, the 19th of July we came from, Harrisburg, and arrived in New York in the afternoon. The command in fifteen days were marched over 100 miles, most of the time in the rain, without proper clothing or shoes for many of the men, with scarcely half the ordinary rations of soldiers, and those irregularly supplied . With little or no covering at night, not even blankets or shelter tents, it is not to be wondered at that many have suffered and that others have died from sickness contracted in this short campaign; and when the facts shall be fully collected and properly detailed, I am sure that the General Government will be satisfied that if ” little or no reliance can be placed upon the paid militia ” (General Halleck’s report), it has at least contributed something toward the safety of the capital of the State of Pennsylvania, and of the great railroads that cross the Susquehanna River at or near that place.

The Sixty-eight Regiment New York State National Guard, from Chautauqua County, were with us at the front, and did yeomen’s service with axes in leveling a forest around, and marched with us the entire route. There was also another column, consisting of Pennsylvania Militia, under the command of General Dana, that went down the Cumberland Valley Railroad after it was reconstructed in part, and joined the Army of the Potomac near Hagerstown. The officers under my command having been required to make a report of their several regiments directly to the Commander-in-Chief, have, as I am informed, made such report.

The Fifty-second and Fifty-sixth having furnished to me copies, which have been printed, I annex. The Twenty-third and Forty-seventh Regiments have not made to me any reports. Too much praise cannot be given to the officers and men of the several regiments of my brigade for the promptness with which they responded to the call of the Commander-in-Chief, and for their endurance of fatigue in their duty, of throwing up embankments, felling forests, and marching through such and extent of country, so poorly as they were supplied with clothing, with camp equipments, and with rations. By the activity and energy of the different members of my staff, the several regiments in our column of march were much assisted, and their wants and suffering greatly alleviated.

Respectfully, yours,


More of Union General William Smith In Washington Township

WFSmith_MGENOFFICIAL RECORDS: Series 1, vol 27, Part 2 (Gettysburg Campaign) page 220- 223
No. 407. Report of Brig. General William F. Smith, U. S. Army, commanding First Division, of operations June 26-July 15.

HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, DEPT. OF SUSQUEHANNA, Greencastle, Pa., July 18, 1863.
Major: I have to report that, in obedience to orders from the general commanding, I assumed command of the troops south of the Susquehanna and in the vicinity of Harrisburg on Friday, June 26, and was busily engaged until Tuesday, 30th, in strengthening the defenses at Bridgeport, opposite the city of Harrisburg, and at Marysville, to protect the bridges of the Pennsylvania and Northern Central Railroads. On Sunday, a rebel cavalry force, with a section of artillery, came to our picket line near Oyster Point, and drove in our cavalry pickets, but did not succeed in moving the infantry pickets .

On Monday, I sent the regular cavalry, under Lieutenant [Frank] Stanwood, on the Carlisle road, and he engaged and drove in the pickets of the enemy, but was obliged to retire under a fire of artillery which was opened on him. On Tuesday, learning that the rebel infantry had left Carlisle, the cavalry was ordered forward, and found the enemy at Sporting Hill. General Ewen, New York militia, in command of the Twenty-second and Thirty-seventh New York State Militia, went forward to support Lieutenant Stanwood, and a section of Landis’ battery, under the direction of Lieutenant Muhlenberg, was immediately ordered up. The enemy was found in position, and attacked about 4 p. m.

The artillery arrived on the ground about 5 p. m., and soon silenced the fire on the enemy. General Ewen’s command was ordered forward to occupy Carlisle, but did not march until the next morning . Captain Boyd, First New York Cavalry, with 120 men, was also ordered by the Trindle Spring Road, via Churchtown, to Carlisle. He stopped at Chuchstown, and entered Carlisle on the morning of July 1.

Colonel Brisbane, commanding the Pennsylvania Brigade, was ordered to move on Carlisle by the mud road at daylight, but owing to a want of transportation, did not to move until about 9 a. m. I visited the headquarters to receive instructions and make arrangements for supplies and transportation, and, recrossing the river, the remainder of the command, under Brigadier-general Knipe, U. S. Volunteers, was directed to march as far as practicable and encamp, and to move at an early hour in the morning.

The Eleventh New York Artillery, under Colonel Forbes, refused to march under certain pleas, and the, matter was referred to General Couch. This delayed my starting till 3. 30 p. m., and finally, leaving orders with General Knipe to carry out the instructions with reference to the refractory regiment, I left to join the advance. Hearing rumors on the road of a large cavalry force in the vicinity, I sent out scouts on the cross-road, and ousted on, entering Carlisle at sunset.

General Ewen had passed through the town on the Baltimore turnpike about 1 and 1/2 miles, and, while going on to examine his position, word came from my scouts that a large cavalry force of the enemy was in the immediate vicinity, on the York road, and, turning back, before I entered the village, their guns had opened on us. The road for several miles back of us was filled with stragglers from the brigades of General Ewen and Colonel Brisbane, and the men with me were wearied with a long march to which they were unused. Under these circumstances, I determined to content myself till morning with simply holding the town, but before I could get a line of skirmishers out, a summons was sent by General Fitzhugh Lee to surrender the town, or send out the women and children . I sent an answer that the women and children would be notified to leave. In less than half an hour, another message was sent to the purport that, if not surrendered, the town would be burned. The answer was returned that one answer had already been given. Then sent a volunteer aide, Mr. Ward, of Harrisburg, to communicate with General Knipe, and order him to march at 3 a. m., and to report to General Couch the position of affairs. In the meantime the enemy opened a battery on the town, to which, by my orders, our artillery did not reply, as I demand the fire too inaccurate, and wished to save my ammunition.

About 11 o’clock I sent another volunteer aide-de-camp, Mr. James Dougherty, to try and get to General Knipe with orders to move immediately. Mr. Dougherty was captured and his orderly wounded and about 12 m. a third and last summons came to surrender, to which the reply was given that the message had been twice answered before. About i o’clock the firing ceased, with the exception of three guns about 3 a. m., soon after which reports came in that the enemy was moving off on a country road which came into the turnpike about 2 and 1/2 miles from Carlisle, and by daylight there was nothing opposed to us . The casualties were 12 wounded, none fatally.

Thursday [July 2] the entire command was put in near the barracks, which had been burned during the night, and on Friday a train of provisions came up to Carlisle . The supplies which we could draw from the citizens were extremely limited, though every disposition to aid us was manifested. General Knipe’s command having joined me on Friday [July3], the whole command was put in a motion at 6 a. m. on Saturday [July4] for Mount Holly, where we were detained for two hours by the arrival of about 2, 000 prisoners, paroled on the battle-field, and sent under a flag of truce toward Carlisle .

Wishing to prevent the enemy from getting information of our strength, I was forced to accept the prisoners, subject to the decision of the Government, and turn the rebel escort back. The Thirty-seventh New York Militia Regiment was left at Mount Holly to watch the Baltimore road, and the command moved toward Pine Grove. A most furious rain-storm set in, which raised the creeks, carried away bridges, and made the march toilsome in the extreme.

The command of General Ewen was left at Laurel Forge, to cover the entrance to the narrow valley, and also watch a road leading over the mountain to Bendersville. The remainder of the force was concentrated at Pine Grove Furnace, the Eight New York State Militia being ordered to hold the pass to Bendersville from Pine Grove. On Sunday, General Knipe was ordered with his command to hold the cross-roads from Mount Holly to Cashtown and Pine Grove to Bendersville, while General Ewen crossed the mountain to the Mount Holly and Cashtown road, holding the pass in his rear, and being within a mile of Genera; Knipe’s command. Colonel Brisbane, with the Pennsylvania Brigade, was holding a by-road from Pine Grove to Cashtown.

A cavalry scout, under Lieutenant Stanwood, was sent up Mountain Creek Valley, in the direction of the pass from Chambersburg to Gettysburg, through which it was supposed the enemy would send his trains, if he were defeated. Lieutenant Stanwood drove in the pickets a couple of miles from the turnpike, but had not sufficient force to press on. Captain Boyd joined me at Pen Grove, having followed the rear guard of the enemy to Fayetteville, on the Gettysburg and Chambersburg road, capturing prisoners. He was directed to pass by Bendersville, in the direction of Cashtown, to try and ascertain the movements and position of the enemy. He fell in with them, and captured eight wagons and -prisoners. During the day a small provision train came up, which was very acceptable, as it was impossible to subsist the troops from the country. A scout from General Meade also came through, giving the information the enemy was retiring; and latter in the day, Captain West, a volunteer aide and assistant on the Coast Survey, returned having successfully opened communications with General Meade on Saturday from Mount Holly.

On Monday morning I marched the brigade by three different roads, concentrating at Newman’s Pass behind Cashtown. We were, however too late intercept the trains which had gone that route. Tuesday morning, I was proposing to enter the Cumberland Valley and follow down the mountains toward Boonsborough, when an order came from General Meade to march to Gettysburg, which order was shortly after countermanded, with permission to do as I had proposed.

The command was then marched to Altodale, and an officer sent to Chambersburg, to try and procure supplies, as my trains had failed to overtake me. A small supply being procured, the troops were marched on Wednesday to Waynesborough where I found General Neill, with a brigade of infantry and one of cavalry, and eight pieces of artillery.

Here I was forced to wait for my trains to come up, but sent a cavalry scout to communicate with General Meade, west of South Mountain. Thursday was spent in waiting for rations to come up, and for instructions from General Meade. On Friday, I was ordered by him to occupy the enemy to the best advantage, and at be ready to join the Army of the Potomac or General Couch, as circumstances might require.

Colonel McIntosh was at once ordered with his brigade of cavalry and four guns to feel the enemy along the Antietam below Leitesburg, which he did in the most skillful manner, driving his cavalry pickets across the creek upon their infantry and artillery supports. The cavalry was supported in this movement by tow regiments of Pennsylvania militia, under Colonel Frick, at Ringgold and Smithsburg, and one regiment, Forty-third New York Volunteers, from General Neill’s command, posted near Leitesburg.

On Saturday, hearing that rebels had ordered a miller on Marsh Run to grind wheat all night for them, Colonel Brisbane, with two regiments of Pennsylvania militia, was ordered, if possible, to intercept the wagons going for the flour, and destroy the grain if he could not bring it off. These regiments were supported by the Sixty-first Pennsylvania Volunteers, of General Neill’s command. From 2 prisoners captured at the mill, we learned that the enemy had fallen back to Hagerstown.

Colonel Brisbane’s command was left at Waynesborough, with orders to march at daylight, and the rest of the troops were moved to Leitersburg, excepting the command of Colonel Frick, which was ordered from Ringgold to Chewsville. During the night an order came for General Neill to join the Army of the Potomac at once, and, as no instruction were sent to me, I ordered Colonel Brisbane to remain at Waynesborough, to guard my communications, and moved with what force I had with me to Cavetown.

After positing my troops there, I reported in person to General Meade, and recommended to him to divide my command among the old division of the Army of the Potomac before the anticipated battle. Under the supposition that this was to be done, I ordered Colonel Brisbane to Hagerstown, and moved with the rest of the command to the Boonsborough turnpike near Beaver Creek. General Meade declined to distribute the militia, and I remained until Wednesday morning, when I received orders to send the New York State militia home, via Frederick, and these necessary orders were given. The Pennsylvania militia were concentrated at Hagerstown, under Colonel Brisbane, who was appointed military governor, with instructions to watch the ford at Williamsport and Falling Waters.

Before closing, I must call to the remembrance of the general commanding the force that I moved without a quartermaster or commissary, without supply trains, some regiments even being without haversacks, and with no adequate transportation of the cooking utensils of the men, and must pay the proper tribute to the general behavior of the troops during long marches, in rainy weather and without sufficient food.

The rugged mountain roads left many of them barefooted, but the greater portion of the command seemed animated by a desire to do all that was required in the service of their country. Colonel Brisbane deserves special mention for the manner in which he managed and led his command, and I earnestly recommend him to notice. Captain Boyd, First New York Cavalry, also did gallant service with his small force. I am much indebted to Captain M. A. Reno, U. S. Cavalry, who acted as my chief of staff; to Lieutenant Muhlenberg, my chief of artillery; to Lieut, Rufus King, Fourth U. S. Artillery, and to Lieutenant Johnson, U. S. Cavalry, for their services. To my own aides-Lieutenants [Matthew] Berry and [Campbell] Tucker, and the following gentlemen, who were volunteer aides:Colonel McCormick, Captains P. C. F. West and Lamborn, Lieuts. Samuel Carey, F. Rogers, and – Evans, and Mr. Ward –

I am indebted for zealous and defatigable service. Dr. John Neill, medical director of the division, was particularly watchful and efficient in the discharge of his duties.

Very respectfully,

Brigadier-General .

Union General William Smith in Washington Township

WFSmith_MGENOFFICIAL RECORDS: Series 1, vol 27, Part 2 (Gettysburg Campaign) Page 225-226
No. 407. Report of Brig. General William F. Smith, U. S. Army, commanding First Division (New York Militia)

Sunday, July 5. – The troops were moved from Pine Grove at 8 a. m. over the mountain, on the Bendersville road, General Knipe’s brigade, with one section of artillery, being placed at the intersection of this road with the road from Holly Springs to Shippensburg, and Colonel Brisbane’s brigade on a wood road leading into the Shippensburg road. Ewen’s brigade moved from Laurel Forge in the morning, by a road across the mountain, to a point where the road from Holly Springs to Shippensburg is crossed by the road from Laurel Forge to Bendersville. The Thirty-seventh New York was ordered to move to the fork of the road, 2 miles below Mount Holly, where the Gettysburg road comes into the Pine Grove road. Owing to the movements of the enemy, this regiment was afterward withdrawn, and rejoined the main body.

Monday, July 6. – All the troops moved by different roads to Newmans’ Cut, on the turnpike between Gettysburg and Chambersburg, 4 miles east of Cashtown, where they were concentrated during the evening .

Tuesday, July 7. – Orders were received from General Meade to move the command to Gettysburg, but just as the troops were about starting, the order was changed, and the head of the column left Newman’s Cut at 11 a. m. for Alto Furnace, where the whole force arrived, from 5 to 7 o’clock. Lieutenant Stanwood, with 100 cavalry, crossed to the same point by the way of Caledonia Springs. A scout sent out reported at 8. 30 p.m. that the Twelfth Corps occupied Waynesborough.

Wednesday, July 8. – Moved from Aldodale at 11 a. m.; reached Waynesborough in the afternoon. Two regiments, under Colonel Frick, arrived after dark. The whole force was encamped in line of battle on the right (Colonel Bisbane) and left (New York troops) of the road to Hagerstown, a mile and a half out of Waynesborough. The force at Waynesborough was found to be not the Twelfth Corps, but a small force of infantry, cavalry, and artillery, under General Milroy.

Thursday, July 9. – Was sent in Waynesborough. Two regiments of Colonel Frick’s were sent to Ringgold, in Maryland.

Friday, July 10. – A reconnaissance by General Neill’s cavalry found the enemy in force on the right bank of the Antietam, below Leiterburg. An examination of the country from Franklin Cliff, Md., informed us that a large force of the enemy was encamped on high ground, 2 and 1/2 miles from Hagerstown, on the Waynesborough road, and a smaller force on the Boonsborough road, near Hagerstown. No earthworks could be discovered, nor any earthworks on the ridge toward Williamsport. No movements were visible on the Williamsport road. The supply train arrived in the evening. The short marches and the delay at Waynesborough were caused by the want of provisions and the impossibility of bringing up the supply trains with sufficient celerity. Every effort was made to supply the command with rations from the country people, but with little success, the rebels having cleaned out the region. Orders had been issued to the command to be in readiness to move, but a dispatch was received on the evening of the 10th, from General Meade, ordering that the commands of General Milroy and General Smith should remain at Waynesborough, to occupy the enemy or to join General Meade or General Couch, as the movements of the enemy might permit to require. According to this dispatch, General Meade’s right wing was to be on the Boonsborough and Hagerstown turnpike, between Antietam and Beaver Creek, and his left at Bakersville, on the evening of the 10th.

Saturday, July 11. – Colonel Brisbane with the Gray reserves and Twenty-eight Pennsylvania, supported by the Sixty-first Pennsylvania Volunteers, of General Neill’s command, made a reconnaissance to Marsh Mill, within the enemy’s lines of the day before, about 4, miles from camp. He destroyed 24 barrels of flour which had been ground for the rebels, and all the grain (100 bushels) in the mill. The patrol returned about dark. The whole command, excepting these troops engaged under Colonel Brisbane, moved at dusk to Leitersburg, and encamped there for the night.

Sunday, July 12. -The command (excepting Colonel Brisbane’s) left Leitersburg at 6 a. m., and reached Cavetown at noon. Colonel Brisbane moved from Waynesborough. Colonel Frick moved to Chewsville.

Monday, 13th. – The force at Cavetown, under the temporary command of General Knipe for the march, moved to a point near Smoketown. The orders were to go to Benevola, where Beaver Creek crosses the Boonsborough and Hagerstown turnpike, but they were not understood. The Blue Reserves took part in a skirmish under General Kilpatrick, near Hagerstown, with a loss of 1 killed and 9.

22nd New York State National Guard in Washington Township, July 1863

History of the Twenty-Second Regiment of National Guard of the State of New York, George Wood Wingate, 1895, New York, NY. Pg. 293-301.


George Wood Wingate



After the regiment had eaten a light breakfast of hard-tack, the rain ceased and the skies cleared up. Leaving Altodale ]Mont Alto], Wednesday, July 8, the division followed the course of the Little Antietam, in a southwesterly direction, to Waynesborough, most of the time wading in mud over their ankles, and sometimes to their knees, and went into camp in some woods on the Waynesborough and Hagerstown pike, about two miles beyond, having marched about eleven miles. Here it became a part of the Third Brigade, Second Division of the Sixth Army Corps, whose white cross, artistically carved out of cracker, was at once adopted by a number of the regiment. In the subsequent maneuvers it became a part of the Army of the Potomac.

Waynesborough was a pleasant little place, with many pretty and patriotic girls, the prettiest the men had seen since leaving Carlisle. The town, however, had been so cleaned out by the enemy that one could not even buy a tin cup. The foraging parties of the regiment scoured the country both in and outside the pickets with untiring zeal, but the results were meagre enough. During the three days they remained there, the Twenty-second had almost nothing to eat the first day and but a bare sufficiency afterward. Fortunately, there was nothing to hinder their sleeping, washing the mud out of their clothes (which they had to do piecemeal, having no others), and watching them while they dried. The Confederates were nearby, and in strong force, their pickets being but two miles distant; and officers and men were required, by special orders, to be always on the alert. No passes whatever were permitted to be issued.

Gen. Meade, in his report of the battle of Gettysburg, makes the following allusion to the arrival of the brigade, though he erroneously makes Boonesborough, instead of Waynesborough, the place where the division first joined him: It is my duty as well as my pleasure to call attention to the earnest efforts at co-operation on the part of Maj.-Gen. D. N. Couch, commanding the Department of the Susquehanna, and particularly to his advance of 4,000 men under Brig.-Gen. W. F. Smith, who joined me at Boonesborough just prior to the withdrawal of the Confederate Army.

The following report of his arrival was made by Gen. Smith to Gen. Williams, Assistant Adjutant-General of the Army of the Potomac:

Waynesborough, July 8, 1863. My command arrived here to-day, and finding Gen. Neill here have encamped so as to render him all possible assistance till definite instructions are sent to me. My command is an incoherent mass, and, if it is to join the Army of the Potomac, I would suggest that the brigades, five in number, be attached to old divisions, and thus disperse the greenness. They cannot be manoeuvred, and, as a command, it is quite helpless, excepting in the kind of duty I have kept them on in the mountains. I have here about 4,000 men, and, I suppose, 2,000 have straggled away since I left Carlisle.* * Mainly from illness, poor food and worn-out shoes.

Gen. Knipe is the only one I have with me who is at all serviceable, and he is anxious to get back to his own brigade in the Twelfth Corps. I am utterly powerless, without aid, and in the short time allotted to infuse any discipline into these troops, and, for the reasons given above, make the suggestion as being for the best interest of the service.

This suggestion of Gen. Smith was a wise one, at least, as far as the New York troops were concerned. The trouble with them was the inexperience of their brigade commanders and the want of confidence the men felt in them. If mixed with the veterans of the Potomac, and put under experienced officers, their efficiency would have been doubled.

The following official communications show the situation at this time.

Brig.-Gen. Thomas H. Neill to Gen. Williams: Headquarters Light Division Army Of The Potomac, July 9, 1863.

“Baldy” (W. F.) Smith is here with his command. Col. Gregg, with a brigade of cavalry, who leaves for Boonesborough, will send this. A scout brings information that Lee has one corps intrenched on the Williamsport pike from Hagerstown, another on the Boonesborough pike, and Early is said to be up toward Middlebury between Newcastle and Hagerstown.

The news of the capture of Vicksburg is confirmed. Have sent a cavalry reconnaissance toward Hagerstown this morning. It has not returned.

Since writing the above, have felt the enemy’s pickets, with a regiment of cavalry, at a bridge four or five miles from Hagerstown. They are stubborn. We drove them away, but they returned as we retired.

Gen. Smith is in with his mixed command. Am delighted to have the benefit of his counsel and advice. We are all right, but watch Early’s division on my right toward Middlebury.

Asst. Adjt.-Gen. Williams to Gen. Smith: Headquarters Army Of The Potomac, July 9, 1863.

The army will occupy the line from Boonesborough to Rohrersville to-day. The army (men and animals) is very much exhausted, and cannot advance as rapidly as desired. Although the information respecting the position of the enemy is not very definite, yet he is believed not to have crossed any large part of it over the Potomac, but is concentrating it between Hagerstown and Williamsport. Under these circumstances, definite instructions cannot be sent to you. You will look to the security of your command; join this army when you can do so with security, unless the operations of Gen. Couch require you to unite with him. Definite instructions will be sent you as soon as practicable. Although highly desirable that Gen. Neill should join his corps, yet he must be governed by your instructions.

Gen. Smith to Gen. Couch: Waynesborough, July 9, 1863.

I am here awaiting orders from you or Gen. Meade, and am much in want of shoes, and will be happy to ride over and see you when you arrive at Shippensburg.

Gen. Smith to Gen. Williams:

Waynesborough, July 10, 1863. I had proposed to move the command to join the Army of the Potomac to-morrow morning, but, in consequence of your dispatch, shall await orders, and do my best here. The cavalry made a scout to-day, and found the rebels strongly posted on the right bank of the Antietam, below Leitersburg. I fear, if I am kept here to make a long march, I shall not be able to get into the fight.

On July 9 (Thursday), the division was greatly fatigued and very hungry. The commissary reported: We shall have no rations to-day, as the Government train from Harrisburg has not been able to reach here, roads so bad and bridges washed away. A little bread was obtained and a slice issued to each man.

On July 10, the rations had not arrived, but some food was obtained at the houses. The men bathed in Antietam Creek and found it a great relief as some of them had not had their clothes off for over two weeks. That night the Twenty-second had dress parade, the first since leaving camp at Harrisburg.

The following general order was read in front of each regiment of the brigade: Headquarters First Division, Dept. Of The Susquehanna, Waynesborough, July 11, 1863.

The brigadier-general commanding calls the attention of the command to the certainty of an early engagement with the enemy, and it is strictly enjoined upon brigade, regimental and company commanders to attend at once to the condition of the arms and ammunition of the men under them. No time is to be lost in putting the arms in perfect order and seeing that the boxes are filled with cartridges. The rations on hand must be cooked and put in haversacks, so that no detention will ensue when the order to march is given; and also that the men may not suffer for food when it is impossible for the supply trains to reach them. By order of Brig.-gen. W. F. Smith.

This was very necessary. The incessant rains, the fording of streams and sleeping on the wet ground had kept the men’s guns (muzzle-loaders) in horrible condition. They had nothing with which to draw the charges.

Once the regiment formed in line to fire a volley and not twenty rifles were discharged at the command, and fully ten minutes were spent before the greater part of the wet loads could be fired.

The gray uniforms of a number of the regiments of the division were not approved of by the veterans of the Army of the Potomac, and those wearing them were advised that their health would be improved by their exchanging them for blue blouses before they got into action, as there was great danger that they might get fired on from the rear as well as from the front.


Friday, July 10, the Twenty-third and Seventy-first went out two or three miles on the Greencastle pike, where they remained for the day. During the afternoon of Saturday, July 11, distant cannonading was heard, caused by Gen. Meade’s feeling the enemy at Williamsport. Reports were current throughout the division of another battle in which Lee had been worsted, and the excitement was great, although such matters had got to be such an old story that the feeling was less than would be supposed. About dusk, on the division marched for Maryland in high spirits. On the way, the Twenty-second marched and counter-marched a good deal, losing three hours’ time and its temper, in consequence of Gen. Ewen having forgotten that in going through a strange country he could not get on well without providing himself with a guide.

Consequently, it was not until after dark that it reached the Antietam, at Scotland’s Bridge, although this was only about two miles out. The bridge had been burned, and was still smoking, and the men were ordered to ford the stream. As no one knew the depth, the men took off their trousers, or rolled them up to their hips, only to find the water not two feet deep.

Once across, a pleasant moonlight march over a first-rate road soon brought the column to the border; and when the officers announced, “That house marks the line, boys!” it was with no small gratification that the men shook off the dust from their feet, singing, with great impressment, the Union version of ” Maryland my Maryland,” together with a number of parodies not very complimentary to the ” men we left behind us.” It appears from the records that some objection was anticipated on the part of a portion of the troops to their being sent out of Pennsylvania. Nothing of the kind ever existed in the New York regiments, and they heard of nothing’ of it among their Pennsylvania associates.